slide1
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Electoral College Issues Explored through Mathematics and Data Analysis NCSS San Diego

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 37

Electoral College Issues Explored through Mathematics and Data Analysis NCSS San Diego - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 95 Views
  • Uploaded on

Electoral College Issues Explored through Mathematics and Data Analysis NCSS San Diego December 1, 2007 Dr. Tim Fry Washburn University Topeka, KS [email protected] Electoral College. Historical Origins & Precedents Inquiry Activities Games & Activities

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Electoral College Issues Explored through Mathematics and Data Analysis NCSS San Diego' - delilah-perry


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1
Electoral College Issues

Explored through

Mathematics and Data Analysis

NCSS San Diego

December 1, 2007

Dr. Tim Fry

Washburn University

Topeka, KS

[email protected]

electoral college
Electoral College
  • Historical Origins & Precedents
  • Inquiry Activities
  • Games & Activities
  • Scrap It, Keep It or Tweak It ?
classroom objectives students will be able to
Classroom ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
  • note historical origins, precedents and changes to the electoral college system especially the small/large state compromise, role of state legislatures and 12th Amendment to the Constitution
  • describe some aspects of how the electoral college system works today especially noting the winner takes all in most states
  • analyze data from several presidential elections noting popular and electoral vote outcomes with variations, third party/independent candidate effects
  • list and describe some current issues for keeping, scrapping or tweaking the electoral college system
slide4
Sites for data on popular vote and electoral votes are:

http://www.uselectionatlas.org

(Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections)

http://nationalatlas.gov

http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/collections/stats/elections

http www kscourts org lawwise sep2004 htm math
Related articles by Tim Fry:“Constitutional Mathematics: Integrating Social Studies and Mathematics,” Law Wise, September 2004 “Lesson Plan #1: The Electoral College Game,” Law Wise, September 2004

http://www.kscourts.org/lawwise/sep2004.htm#math

electoral college historical origins precedents amendments
Electoral College--Historical Origins, Precedents, Amendments
  • Tough assignment-How to elect a president?

large/small states; central/federal versus states power; balance of power between Congress & the Presidency; little communication between states-

  • Several Proposals
  • 1) have the Congress choose
  • 2) state legislatures choose
  • 3) direct popular vote-favorite son & large vs. small
  • 4) College of electors--indirect election in which each state legislatures would choose knowledgeable and informed individuals to select the president based solely on merit and without regard to State of origin or political party.

http://www.uselectionatlas.org

electoral college historical origins precedents amendments1
Electoral College--Historical Origins, Precedents, Amendments
  • The First Design-- Article II, Section 1 of the Constitution
  • Each State allocated number of Electors equal to its congressional delegation.
  • The manner of choosing the Electors was left to the individual State legislatures.
  • In order to prevent Electors from voting only for a "favorite son" of their own State, each Elector was required to cast two votes for president, at least one of which had to be for someone outside their home State.
  • The person with the most electoral votes, provided that it was an absolute majority became president. Whoever obtained the next greatest number of electoral votes became vice president.
  • In the event that no one obtained an absolute majority in the Electoral College or in the event of a tie vote, the U.S. House of Representatives would choose the president from among the top five contenders. The vice presidency would go to whatever remaining contender had the greatest number of electoral votes. If that, too, was tied, the U.S. Senate would break the tie by deciding between the two.
  • http://www.uselectionatlas.org
slide11
1792

http://www.uselectionatlas.org

slide12
1796

http://www.uselectionatlas.org

slide13
1800

http://www.uselectionatlas.org

historical origins precedents amendments
Historical Origins, Precedents, Amendments

The Second Design (after four elections and rise of political parties)

the 12th Amendment(1804) requires that:

+ each Elector cast one vote for president and a separate vote for vice president

+ if no one receives an absolute majority of electoral votes for president, then the U.S. House of Representatives will select the president from among the top three contenders with each State casting only one vote and an absolute majority being required to elect.

+ if no one receives an absolute majority for vice president, then the U.S. Senate will select the vice president from among the top two contenders for that office.

http://www.uselectionatlas.org

slide16
1824

http://www.uselectionatlas.org

slide19
Election Inquiry Activity Map #1

http://nationalatlas.gov/printable/elections.html#list

slide20
Election Inquiry Activity Map #2

http://nationalatlas.gov/printable/elections.html#list

slide21
Election Inquiry Activity Questions

Use Inquiry Activity Maps #1 to answer the following questions about Presidential Elections from 1972-2000

(sample questions)

1. What three elections did the Republicans win the electoral vote by a landslide?

2. Which election was the closest in number of electoral votes?

Which election was close in the popular vote but a landslide in the electoral vote?

Name at least one state in which the same political party has won all eight elections.

Note an election that was close in both the electoral vote and the popular vote.

In which election did the Democratic candidate do the poorest in number of electoral votes?

In which election did the winner of the popular vote lose the electoral vote?

slide22
“Electoral Vote Density”

Number of voters divided by electoral votes

Varies greatly between California and Wyoming

2004 Election

California Electoral Vote Density: 651,659 persons per EV

Wyoming Electoral Vote Density: 168,511persons per EV

slide23
1984

Wyoming

slide24
1984

Maryland

other resources sites

Other resources/sites

http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/electoral-college/index.html

other resources sites1

Other resources/sites

http://www.timeforkids.com/TFK/games/white/0,9970,96321,00.html

slide34
Some Arguments for the Electoral College

maintains a federal system of government and representation

----”nationalization of our central government”--”state’s choice”

contributes to the political stability of the nation by encouraging a two-party system and political stability

---diffficult for minor party to win enough popular votes to get electoral votes--forces fringe or extreme ideas to the middle and also sometimes forces majority parties to adopt new ideas to maintain support--assimilation process--pragmatism

contributes to the cohesiveness of the country by requiring a distribution of popular support to be elected president

--Candidates must build coaltions of states and regions (urban and rural) & without it the EC comes the possibilty of domination of one large populous region or of urban over rural interests

http://uselectionatlas.org/INFORMATION/INFORMATION/electcollege_procon

slide35
Four Arguments Against the Electoral College

:

* the possibility of electing a numerically minority president

narrow popular vote in large state-winner take all

* the risk of so-called "faithless" Electors

1988-Dukakis/Bensen-West Virginia Elector switched them

* the possible role of the Electoral College in depressing voter turnout

other elections always taking place as well

* its failure to accurately reflect the national popular will

seven least populous states combined voters of about 3 million and 25 electoral votes the same as almost 10 million voters in Florida with the same 25 electoral votes--electoral vote density

http://uselectionatlas.org/INFORMATION/INFORMATION/electcollege_procon

slide36
Tweak It ?

District Method

Two Electors At Large and one Electors for each Congressional District are pledged to each Presidential/Vice-Presidential ticket (the Electors' names may or may not appear on the ballot). The At-Large Electors pledged to the ticket having received the plurality of votes state-wide are chosen. The Elector pledged to the ticket having received the plurality of votes within each Congressional District is chosen.

* This method was used by Michigan in the 1892 Election, splitting electors Rep 9 to Dem 5

* Maine adopted this method in 1969 (first used in 1972), but has yet to split any electors

* Nebraska adopted this method in 1991 (first used in 1992), but has yet to split any electors

http://uselectionatlas.org

slide37
Your Thoughts on the

Electoral College?

ad