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Methodology • Twin studies • Adoption studies
Minnesota twin study, Bouchard et al. (combo) • identical twins more similar than fraternal
Temperaments • Buss & Plomin • Emotionality • Sociability • Activity level
Interaction of Nature & Nurture Environment effects genes • PKU • MAO and antisocial behavior In males: Low genotype + maltreatment antisocial beh. High genotype no inc. antisocial beh even with maltreatment Low genotype without maltreat. slight inc, but not significant
Genes effect environment Examples: Emotionality and attachment Physical attractiveness and self-esteem
Environments • Shared (relatively little effect compared to genes) • Non-shared Within Family Outside Family
Genes and Personality • No single gene, • instead multiple genes in complex combinations and patterns, • turned on and off by experiences
Implications??? • When we can genetically engineer personality, should we ???