INFORMATION SOURCS AND REFERENCES BY Dr. D.K. VEER LIBRARIAN Dr. BABASAHEB AMBEDKAR MARATHWADA UNIVERSITY AURANGABAD
Primary sources is judged by : • The reputation of the author • The trustworthiness of the Institution where the author • The standard of the journal and its publisher • Primary pub. Should fulfill 3 requirements: • A. The author must have made it clear in the publication that the research described has yielded new facts • B. The publication must include justification for the research; and • C. The publication must be a condensation of how the experiment ran.
Classification of Periodicals • By Organization : by non commercial, commercial • By Content : Archive and Specialized • Scientific Periodicals: Front cover title, vol, issue Number, year etc. • Periodicity : daily, weekly, fortnightly, monthly, bi-monthly, quarterly, six monthly, annually, bi- annually. • Trade Journals: Applied research pub by R&D. trade associations
Research Reports • Annual publication, • Pub. Under series • Research Organisations : NASA, IAEA , FAO • Examples: 1.US Govt. Research and Devt. Reports • 2. US Announcements in Science and Technology • 3. US AEC Nuclear Science Abstracts
Other primary sources • Annual Reports of organisations • Conference Proceedings • Reprints • Patents Literature • Standards : in terms of weight, size, lengths, qualities, composition, process of production etc. • Theses and Dissertations • Trade Literature : about their products, catalogue, guides, house journals etc.
Secondary Sources • Indexing Journals • Bibliography of Agriculture – 1 lakh titles • AGRINDEX – 2 to 2.5 lakhs titles • Science Citation Index – 3 lakhs articles per year • Abstracting Journals • Biological Abstracts • Chemical Abstracs • LISA • Research in Education by M.B. Buch
Secondary Sources cont… • Reviews and Surveys : narrative bibliography • Annual Reports • Reference Books • Textbooks
Tertiary Sources • Yearbook • Directories • Directories of forthcoming books • Directories of available books • Directories of organizations • Directories of people : Telephone Directory • Directories of research projects • Directories of theses in preparation • Bibliographies : INB, BNB etc. • Location List of Periodicals • Lists of abstracting and indexing Services • Guides • Lists of Research in Progress • Guides to professional organization
Electronic Sources • E-Documents : CD, DVD, CD-ROM • E-books • E-Journals
Internet as a source of Information • E-mail • Chat • Electronic Bulletin Board • Bibliographic Database access • Discussion groups • Learning without lectures by intranet • Online Document Delivery • Search Engines
Style Manual • APA – American Psychological Association • Chicago Style manual • MLA – Modern Language Association of America • Harvard University Style
APA Style of References • Book, one author • McKibben, B. (1992). The age of missing information. New York: Random House. • Book, multiple authors • Larson, G. W., Ellis, D. C.,& Rivers, P. C. (1984). Essentials of chemical dependency • counseling. New York: Columbia University Press. • Edited book (editor in place of author) • Inness, S. A. (Ed.). (1998). Delinquents and debutantes: Twentieth-century American • girls’ cultures. New York: New York University Press. • Edited book, multiple authors (editor in place of authors) • Moriarty, L. J., & Carter, D. L. (Eds.). (1998). Criminal justice technology in the 21st • century. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
APA Style of References cont… • Corporate authorship • Institute of Financial Education. (1982). Managing personal funds. Chicago: • Midwestern. • Reprinted or republished chapter • Freud, S. (1961). The ego and the id. In J. Strachey (Ed. and Trans.), The standard • edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19, pp. 3-66). • London: Hogarth Press. (Original work published 1923) • Following the entry, enclose "Original work published" in parentheses, noting the • original date. • Chapter in a volume in a series • Maccoby, E.E., & Martin, J. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parentchild • interaction. In P.H. Mussen (Series Ed.) & E.M. Hetherington (Vol. Ed.), • Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social • development (4th ed., pp. 1-101). New York: Wiley. • Citing multivolume works • Wilson, J. G., & Fraser, F. C. (Eds.). (1977-1978). Handbook of teratology (Vols. 1-4).New York: Plenum Press.
APA Style of References cont--- • Unpublished master’s thesis • Paulosky, K. A. (1997). Knowledge and attitudes of pain and activities of nurse • administrators. Unpublished master’s thesis, Northern Michigan University, • Marquette, Michigan. • Articles in Professional/Scholarly Journals • Article in a journal (continuous pagination throughout volume) • Burke, R. J., Shearer, D., & Deszca, E. (1984). Correlates of burnout phases among • police officers. Group and Organizational Studies, 9, 451-466. • Article in a journal (paginated by issue) • Berkerian, D. A. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting • Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36. • Citing articles in monthly periodicals • Chandler-Crisp, S. (1988, May) "Aerobic writing": A writing practice model. Writing • Lab Newsletter, pp. 9-11. • Citing articles in weekly periodicals • Kauffmann, S. (1993, October 18). On films: Class consciousness. The New • Republic, p.30. • Article in a Popular Magazine • Caloyianis, N. (1998, September). Greenland sharks. National Geographic, 194, 60- • 71. • Article in a Newspaper (Discontinuous pages) • Von Drehle, D. (2000, January 15). Russians unveil new security plan. The • Washington Post, pp. A1, A21.
APA cont… • Proceedings of Meetings & Symposia • Published Proceedings Barlow, D. H., Chorpita, B. F., & Turovsky, J. (1996). Fear, panic, anxiety, and disorders of Emotion. In R. Dienstbier (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 43. Perspectives on anxiety, panic, and fear (pp. 251-328). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. • Wassenaar, L. I., & Hobson, K. A. (1998). Natal origins of migratory monarch butterflies at wintering colonies in Mexico: New isotopic evidence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 95, 15436-15439.
ELECTRONIC SOURCES • Landis, B. (1996). Carlisle Indian Industrial School history. Retrieved September 20,2001, from http://home.epix.net/~landis/histry.html
Conclusion • In the age of information explosion, information is produced in variety of ways. It is necessary to concentrate on the information : • where is generated? • How it is generated? • How it will be accessed? • What is search strategy for accessing information?