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Towards Linguistically Grounded Ontologies. Paul Buitelaar , Philipp Cimiano , Peter Haase , and Michael Sintek Proceedings of the 6 th European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC’09) Heraklion , Greece, May/June 2009, 111-125. 1 Introduction. Ontologies need linguistic grounding because:

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towards linguistically grounded ontologies

Towards Linguistically Grounded Ontologies

Paul Buitelaar, Philipp Cimiano, Peter Haase, and Michael Sintek

Proceedings of the 6th European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC’09)

Heraklion, Greece, May/June 2009, 111-125

Buitelaar et al.

1 introduction
1 Introduction
  • Ontologies need linguistic grounding because:
    • Easier for human developers
    • Automatic information extraction is easier
    • Helps in “verbalizing” an ontology
  • RDFS, OWL, and SKOS not adequate - W3C standards
  • Present a unified model LexInfo based on:
    • LingInfo
    • LexOnto
    • Lexical Markup Framework (LMF) – ISO standard
  • Basis for future Semantic Web standardization

Buitelaar et al.

2 motivation
2 Motivation
  • Separation between Linguistic and Ontological Level
  • Flexible Coupling of the Ontological and Language Systems
  • Subcategorization and Predicate-Argument Structure
  • Why Related Work is Not Enough

Buitelaar et al.

separation of levels
Separation of Levels
  • rdfs:label is not good enough:

<rdfs:Class about="#Cat">

<rdfs:labelxml:lang="en">cat</rdfs:label>

<rdfs:labelxml:lang="en">cats</rdfs:label>

<rdfs:labelxml:lang="de">Katze</rdfs:label>

<rdfs:labelxml:lang="de">Katzen</rdfs:label>

</rdfs:Class>

  • Fails to capture linguistic relationships
  • Linguistic data does not belong in domain ontology
  • Capture in a separate linguistic model - lexicon

Buitelaar et al.

flexible coupling of layers
Flexible Coupling of Layers
  • Options for ‘Schweineschnitzel’ (pork cutlet)
    • ‘Schweineschnitzel’ => class Schweineschnitzel
    • ‘Schweineschnitzel’ =>
    • ‘schnitzel’ => class schnitzel
    • ‘schnitzel’ => class schnitzel and ‘Schweine’ => pork
  • Need flexibility in ontology  linguistic relations
  • Not “fully synchronized”

Buitelaar et al.

subcategorization and predicate arguments
Subcategorization and Predicate Arguments
  • Part-of-speech information is essential:
    • (Germany, capital, Berlin) – capital is a noun
  • Need subcategorization frames:
    • (Rhein, flowsThrough, Karlsruhe) – flow is intransitive, requires through phrase, flow => flows
  • Must capture variation of expression:
    • locatedAt: passes by, connects, goes through
  • Map verb arguments to predicate arguments:
    • [The A8: subject] connects [Karlsruhe: direct object] => (Karlsruhe, locatedAt, A8)

Buitelaar et al.

why related work is not enough
Why Related Work is Not Enough
  • More expressive models are needed:
    • Capture morphology separately
    • Represent decomposition and linking of components
    • Model complex linguistic patterns, eg. subcat. frames
    • Specify meaning with respect to a domain ontology
    • Clearly separate linguistic and ontological levels
  • SKOS, LMF, LexOnto, NLP frameworks, and LWF all fail to meet some of the requirements

Buitelaar et al.

3 towards an ontological and linguistic joint model
3 Towards an Ontological and Linguistic Joint Model
  • Previous Work
    • LingInfo – direct connection of linguistic information to classes and properties
    • LexOnto – subcategorization frames and relation to properties
    • Lexical Markup Framework (LMF) – core package plus extensions for morphology, syntax, and semantics
  • The LexInfoModel – built on LMF, integrates LingInfo and LexOntomodels

Buitelaar et al.

the lexinfo model
The LexInfo Model
  • Req. 1: Morphology Relations
    • Already done in LMF
  • Req. 2: Decomposition of Complex Terms
    • ListOfComponents extends LMF morphology
    • Make owl:Entity subclass of lmf:Sense
  • Req. 3: Subcategorization Frames
    • Link lmf:SyntacticBehavior to lmf:PredicativeRepresentation
    • Additional sublclasses for LMF classes
  • Req. 4: Relate to Domain Ontologies
    • Automatic by linking to domain ontologies
  • Req. 5: Separation Between Linguistics and Ontologies
    • Fully separate, related by OWL2 meta-ontology

Buitelaar et al.

4 conclusions
4 Conclusions
  • Language/knowledge interface too complex for RDFS/OWL/SKOS alone
  • LingInfo allows publishing reusable models
  • Other models fall short of requirements
  • LexInfo integrates LingInfo and LexOnto models using LMF as the “glue”
  • Ontologies and Java API available on Web
  • Intend to continue developing and working with the LFM working group
  • Basis for further standardization

Buitelaar et al.