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DISEASES:. Mrs. Snyder March, 2009. What is a disease?. Abnormal condition of an organism’s cells, body systems, or processes. Evidence: specific symptoms and signs They cause an immune response in complex organisms

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Diseases l.jpg


Mrs. Snyder

March, 2009

What is a disease l.jpg
What is a disease?

  • Abnormal condition of an organism’s cells, body systems, or processes.

  • Evidence: specific symptoms and signs

  • They cause an immune response in complex organisms

    • This is the body’s attempt to rid itself of the disease and stay healthy.

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How do diseases differ?

  • The causes can be different

  • Pathogenscausesome diseases.

    • Biological causes

    • Often called microbes (microscopic)

    • Protists, bacteria, or viruses

    • Microbes can be:

      • carried by mosquitoes, flies, pigs, or other animals

        • Transmitted to humans

      • Found in water, soil, and sneezes

  • Why aren’t we sick all the time?

    • We will discuss that later

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Other causes

  • Genetics

    • Inherited conditions - related to chromosomes

  • Biochemical or environmental factors

    • Second hand smoke

    • Air pollution

  • Individual organism

    • Problems or failure in normal functioning of an organ or organ system

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Body’s defense systems

  • Preventing microbes from entering the body - first lines of defense

    • Hairs lining mucus membranes

    • Skin

    • Acids in the stomach

  • White blood cells are second line of defense

  • Third line of defense: lymphocytes and leukocytes - white blood cells

  • Antibodies - immunities

    • natural or by vaccination

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Managing Non Pathogenic Diseases

  • Repair the damaged system

    • Medicines

    • Surgery

    • Combination

  • Behavioral changes

    • Remove causative behaviors

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Whooping cough



Traveler’s diseases

Black death

Chicken pox




Communicable Diseases

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Non communicable diseases

  • Asthma

  • Multiple Sclerosis

  • Diabetes

  • Epilepsy

  • Allergies

  • Osteoarthritis

  • Restless Leg Syndrome

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What are the differences?

  • Think about the causes.

  • Which diseases can be transmitted from person to person?

  • Which can be treated (or prevented) with medicines?

  • Which will go away? Which are likely to continue for the remainder of the individual’s life?

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Your task

  • All over the world people of all ages are exposed to diseases.

  • You are a medical researcher.

    • Your specific role as a researcher is to research and present information about health issues of your disease.


    • You are responsible to research information on your specific assigned disease.

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  • After you have collected & documented information, you will design a brochure about the disease

    • You will present your findings to the class.

    • In “uniform.”

  • The brochure will then be made available to younger students

    • To promote understanding of diseases

    • Understand their means of transmission.

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Research to conduct

  • What is the nature of the disease? Is it communicable or non-communicable?

  • What are 3 interesting statistics about the disease?

  • What causes the disease?

  • What body system does it impact?

  • What are the signs & symptoms of the disease?

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  • How do you treat the disease?

  • Is it contagious?

  • Is it curable? If so what are possible cures?

  • How do you prevent the disease from spreading to others?

  • Are there traveler’s advisories about this disease (posted by the CDC)?

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Rough draft of research

  • Typed answers to the questions will be submitted by March 24.

  • References will be submitted with the rough draft.

    • MLA format on note cards (4 X 6)

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Format of finished brochure

  • Your unique and creative design

  • Your brochure will be printed on both sides of an 8 1/2” by 11” piece of paper folded into thirds.

  • List of at least 3 references in MLA format.

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  • Final brochure (fully colored) is due by March 31.

  • Typed references

  • Note taking sheet for your classmates.

  • Presentations: dates are to be determined.

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Dani: Influenza

Kellie: Asthma

Aidan: Meningitis

Leah: Multiple Sclerosis

Rachel: Rabies

Jacqueline: Diabetes

Liz: Tetanus

Maya: Epilepsy

Joe: Polio

Audrey: Allergies

Minjun: Whooping Cough

David: Osteoarthritis

Justin: Tuberculosis

Yeji: Restless Leg Syndrome

Caroline:Traveler’s disease (for your country)

Emily: Black death

Nicole: Chicken pox

Assigned Diseases

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  • National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, 2/22/2008, <http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/diagnosis/index.htm>

  • Jones, Paul. 3rd December, 2001, 2/22/2008. <http://www.mult-sclerosis.org/explainingms.html>

  • The Nemours Foundation. 2/22/2008, <http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/infections/skin/chicken_pox.html>

  • New York State Department of Health, 2/22/2008, <http://www.health.state.ny.us/diseases/communicable/>

  • Sanofi Pasteur Inc. 15-Mar-2007, 2/22/2008 s<http://www.vaccineplace.com/?fa=learn>

  • 2007, Arthritis Foundation, 2/22/2008, <http://www.arthritis.org/disease-center.php?disease_id=32>.