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Stress Corrosion Cracking Overview & Introduction. David Johnson December 2, 2003. SCC History. Not a recent phenomenon Not exclusive to pipelines Not confined to underground environment Not geographically limited Ammonia cracking of cartridge brass Chloride cracking of stainless steel.

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scc history
SCC History
  • Not a recent phenomenon
  • Not exclusive to pipelines
  • Not confined to underground environment
  • Not geographically limited
  • Ammonia cracking of cartridge brass
  • Chloride cracking of stainless steel
summary of significance
Summary of Significance
  • Natural gas transmission(1985-2002)
    • 15 of 1415 total reported incidents
  • Liquid transmission (PPTS)
    • 5 of 472 in database
  • NEB (Canada) (1992-2002)
    • 3 of 23
    • None since 1995
  • Overall - about 1% of incidents
why today s interest
Why Today’s Interest?
  • Other, higher significance threats also being addressed
other threats b31 8s
Other Threats (B31.8S)
  • External Corrosion
  • Internal Corrosion
  • Manufacturing Defects
  • Welding & Fabrication Defects
  • Equipment Failure
  • Third Party / Mechanical Damage
  • Incorrect Operations
  • Weather & Outside Force
external internal corrosion
External & Internal Corrosion
  • CP systems
  • Gas quality standards and monitoring
  • Relatively mature ILI capability
  • Correlated to hydro-test capability
  • Rapidly maturing DA capabilities
manufacturing construction
Manufacturing & Construction
  • Specifications - materials & construction
  • Advances in materials technology
  • Mill inspections
  • Construction inspections
  • Proof testing
third party damage
Third Party Damage
  • Dig Safety
  • Common Ground Alliance
  • One Call enforcement
  • Enhanced public awareness
incorrect operation
Incorrect Operation
  • Operator Qualification programs
  • Qualification of controllers
  • OQ-2
  • B31Q
equipment failure
Equipment Failure
  • Gaskets, Seals, Valves, Pumps, etc.
  • Generally not pipe
  • Generally confined
  • Specifications, testing, maintenance
weather outside forces
Weather & Outside Forces
  • Design & Construction
  • Forecasting
  • Monitoring
  • Better understanding of material responses
why today s interest1
Why Today’s Interest?
  • Other, higher significance threats also being addressed
  • Less apparent understanding
  • Small, but widespread, occurrence
  • Methods of addressing not as mature
    • Inspection, characterization, assessment, management
today s workshop
Today’s Workshop
  • Share available information
  • Understand application of current management techniques
  • Update on R&D
  • Future Needs
    • Technology development
    • Regulatory approach
managing scc
Managing SCC
  • Operators have found & managed SCC
  • Tools as prescribed in PLSIA of 2002
    • In-Line Inspection
    • Hydrostatic Testing
    • Direct Assessment
    • Other
  • All have specific capabilities & limitations
  • Gas - Liquid Pipeline Differences
major challenges
Major Challenges
  • Finding SCC
    • Shallow cracks initially
    • May not be visible to unaided eye
  • Gas - Liquid technology differences
  • Service disruptions
  • Water disposal
  • Assessing what is found
  • Mitigation and Management
research development
Research & Development
  • Multi-faceted approach
  • Environmental factors
  • Surface preparation & coatings
  • CP system operation
  • Operational factors
  • Material behavior
  • Detection & sizing
regulatory response
Regulatory Response
  • Determining reasonable response
  • Setting investigation protocols
  • Communication needs
upcoming panels
Upcoming Panels
  • Operator Experience with Finding and Managing SCC
    • TransCanada
    • Enbridge
    • Kinder Morgan
    • Duke
    • Williams
    • Colonial
upcoming panels1
Upcoming Panels
  • R & D
    • What’s been done
    • Current work
    • Future needs
    • PRCI
    • ILIA
    • NACE
upcoming panels2
Upcoming Panels
  • Regulators
    • Concerns & Needs
    • NEB
    • EUB
    • MNOPS
    • USDOT-OPS
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