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Unit 3: VCE History. 1917 to 1924. Cause Promise of elections Lenin demanded control. Continuity or Change? Dismissal of assembly/duma Lenin had a vision. Analysis Bolsheviks represent proletariat. Democratic Centralism. Unwelcome Democracy. Cause Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

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unwelcome democracy


Promise of elections

Lenin demanded control

Continuity or Change?

Dismissal of assembly/duma

Lenin had a vision


Bolsheviks represent proletariat.

Democratic Centralism

Unwelcome Democracy
civil war


Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

War at home and abroad

Continuity or Change?

Lenin dismissed assembly

Revolution was divided

Terror was stronger


Lenin established Bolshevik unity

Trotsky led the military

War Communism

Civil War
economic breakdown


Constant war and economic policies caused Civil War

Different to and worse than 1891 famine

Continuity or Change?

Both peasants and proletariat worse under War Communism

NEP improved outlook but was it communism?


War communism was both a failure economically and ideologically

Comprise of NEP needed but at a cost

Economic Breakdown
internal dissent


Criticisms from within (Zinoviev and Kamenev)

Opposed treaty and lack of democracy


Continuity or Change?

Internal dissent remained in Political Will

Still a change from Tsarism, though terror was worse


Lenin’s attempts to unite were unsuccessful

NEP debated by left-wing idealists

Imposed from above

Internal Dissent
analysis activity 1

I would argue for ruthless and self-confident but against fanatical. This was a thoughtfully planned takeover with longer term ambitions.

  • We will never know. Certainly the circumstances that allowed power to be gained made it very difficult for the ideal of communism to develop freely.
  • I wouldn’t agree with the takeover as being ‘criminal’ (it was dodgy but that’s politics!). However the terror used to maintain power and the famine caused by poor economic policies can be seen as an atrocity (arguably).
Analysis Activity 1
analysis activity 2

The Hammer and Sickle represents the peasants and the industrial workers. The red flag represents the Soviet. ‘CCCP’ represents the Council of People’s Commissar's (Sovnarkom). The book may represent the Communist Manifesto. The varied members of the working class represents the ‘friendship of peoples’.

  • That it is moving forward, there are sunny days ahead with everyone working together towards a better, communist USSR.
  • It represents the peasantry, the true victims of War Communism as their food was requisitioned and many died from famine.
  • That it was desperate and poor, the man is frail and starving.
Analysis Activity 2