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2. We are learning to: describe how objects in the solar system are in regular and predictable motions that explain days, years, and seasons. We are looking for: description of: • Days- Earth rotates on its axis every 24 hours • Years-Earth revolves around the sun 365.25 days • Seasons-Earth revolves around the sun as the Earth is tilted on its axis

3. Seasons • Seasons are caused by the tilt of the earth’s axis as the earth revolves around the sun. • Vernal equinox is the beginning of Spring. • Summer solstice is the beginning of Summer. • Autumnal equinox is the beginning of Autumn. • Winter Solstice is the beginning of Winter.

4. Motion of the Earth • Rotation is the spinning of the earth on its axis. • This movement determines the length of a day, 24 hours. • Revolution is the movement of one object around another object. • This movement determines the length of a year, 365.25 days. • Every four years is a leap year.

5. Why do we have night and day? • Earth’s rotation • Earth’s revolution • Tilt of the Earth on its axis • I need Help! 0 of 26 10

6. What causes Earth to experience different seasons? • It rotates on its axis while it revolves around the sun • It revolves on its axis while it rotates around the sun • It is tilted while it rotates around the sun. • It is tilted while it revolves around the sun. • I need help! 0 of 26 10

7. If the Earth’s Revolution was slower, we would experience • Longer days • Shorter days • Longer years • Shorter years • I need help! 0 of 26 10

8. Of the following, which does not affect seasons? • Earth is tilted 23.5 degrees • The Earth revolves around the sun • The Earth’s distance from the sun • I need help! 0 of 26 10

9. 1. PRACTICE 2. EXTENSION Pretend you live in Northern Alaska. Write a paragraph about what the hours of day and night would be like the summer and winter. Make a drawing that illustrates the difference between a year and a day. 4. FRONTLOAD Pre/Post Check Key Terms 3. REVIEW ____ Eclipse ____ ____ Lunar Eclipse ____ ____ Solar Eclipse ____ ____ Tides ____ ____ Spring Tide ____ ____ Neap Tide ____ ____ Moon Phases ____ ____ Crater ____ What laws of motion apply to our new astronomy unit? Explain.

10. We are learning to: describe how objects in the solar system are in regular and predictable motions that explain phases (moon cycles), eclipses, tides We are looking for: a description of -Phases-moon revolves around the Earth approximately once a month-Eclipse-are random predictable; one object moves in front of another object in relation to the position of the sun -Tides-high tide occurs approximately twice a day due to the gravitational pull of the moon

11. Phases of the Moon • The moon is illuminated by the sun. • The moon reflects sunlight to the earth. • The different phases of the moon is affected by the moon revolving around the earth as the earth revolves around the sun. • The complete cycle of phases takes 29.5 days, this is known as a synodic month. • Each phase takes about 3.5 days.

12. Solar Eclipses • Occurs during a new moon when the moon is between the sun and earth. • The shadow is the umbra, the partial shadow is the penumbra. • Doesn’t happen every month because the moon’s orbit around the earth is tilted and this prevents the sun, earth and moon from being in a straight line. • Do not look at a solar eclipse without protective eye gear.

13. Lunar Eclipse • Occurs during a full moon phase when the earth is between the sun and the moon. • More common than the solar eclipse. • Can be view without protective eye gear.

14. Tides • Tides are caused by the gravitational attraction between the moon and earth. • High tides are 12.5 hours apart. • Spring tide is the highest high tide and occur at full and new moon phases. • Neap tide is the lowest high tide and occur at first and last quarter moon phases.

15. Which phase occurs when the moon is in between the Earth and the sun? • Full moon • New moon • 1st Quarter moon • 3rd quarter moon 0 of 26 10

16. What causes us to see different phases of the moon? • Light reflects off of the surface of the moon. • The moon revolves around the Earth. • We see different perspectives of the moon. • All of the above. 0 of 26 10

17. What is the main cause of tides? • The gravitational pull of the moon • The gravitational pull of the sun • The gravitational pull of the Earth • I need help! 0 of 26 10

18. If the sun, moon, and Earth are perfectly aligned (as pictured), what event will occur on Earth? • Neap Tide • Solar Eclipse • Lunar Eclipse • Seasonal Change 0 of 26 10

19. When studying a solar eclipse, which would be a proper method of viewing the sun? • Wear sunglasses • Use a telescope • Use a magnifying glass • Use filters that are specifically designed to view eclipses • I need help! 0 of 26 10

20. FOUR BLOCK INTERVENTION INSTRUCTIONS • If you have not missed any questions, start with block #2 and then complete blocks #3 and #4. • If you have missed 2 or more, meet with the teacher. • Everyone else starts in block #1 and then complete blocks #2, #3, and #4.

21. 1. PRACTICE 2.EXTENSION What would happen to the earth’s tides if the moon was not present? Using your knowledge of moon, write a paragraph (6-10 sentences)explaining why or why not? Explain how the moon affects the earth. 3. REVIEW 4. FRONTLOAD Draw a diagram illustrating all of the phases of the moon. Label all of the phases. What do you know about gravity and inertia?

22. We are learning to: explain that gravitational force determines motions in the solar system and keeps the planets in orbit around the sun.We are looking for: explanation that*All objects in the solar system have gravity.*Sun has the greatest mass, thus has the greatest gravitational pull within our solar system.*Since planets have inertia, they do not get pulled into the sun. *Gravity keeps the planets in orbit.

23. Forces that Hold Earth in Orbit around the Sun • Gravity is the attraction between any two objects. • Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist change in motion. • The balance between gravity and inertia keeps earth in orbit around the sun.

24. What is an object’s resistance to a change in motion? • Gravity • Inertia • Mass • Friction • I need help!

25. Predict what would happen if Earth stopped its forward motion around the sun? • It will fly off into space. • It will hit the nearest planet. • It will get pulled into the sun. • It will continue to revolve.

26. What keeps planets revolving around the sun? • The sun’s gravitational pull. • The planet’s mass. • The planet’s magnetic field. • The Sun’s inertia. • I need help!

27. Orbit Gravity Please copy circle and do this. • Fill in two words that closely relate to the two words given. • Write a paragraph explaining the significance of each word and how they fit together to form a concept?

28. We are learning to: *Compare the composition and orbits of comets and asteroids with that of Earth. We are looking for: Composition of comets, asteroids, and Earth1. Earth is composed of rock with many layers and has a core of dense metal2.Comets are composed of ice and dust (dirty snowball)3. Asteroids are composed of chunks of solid rock with heavy metalOrbits of comets, asteroids, and Earth’s1.Earth’s orbit is elliptical 2. Comet’s orbit is elongated and elliptical 3. Asteroids are elliptical and orbit in the asteroid belt or the Kuiper belt.

29. We are learning to: Describe the effect that asteroids or meteroids have when traveling through space and entering planetary atmospheres. We are looking for: • Asteroids are large rocky objects that orbit the sun. If they hit the Earth the impact could be catastrophic. • Meteorites are small rocky objects hit the Earth all the time and do not cause much damage. • A rock changes its classification based on its location: Meteoroid – rock located in outer space Meteor – rock burning up in the Earth’s atmosphere (Shooting Star/Meteor Shower) Meteorite – rock that hits the ground

30. Members of the Solar system • Sun (closest star to earth) • Planets • Moons • Asteroids • Meteoroids • Comets

31. Inner Planets: Mercury • 0.4 AU from the sun. • Rotational period 59 Earth days. • Revolution period of 88 Earth days. • No moon. • Average temperature range is 670 K to 103 K. • Almost no atmosphere and no water.

32. Inner Planets: Venus • 0.7 AU from the sun. • Retrograde rotational period 243 Earth days. • Revolution period of 225 Earth days. • The day on Venus is longer than a year. • No moon. • Average temperature range is 700 K. • Atmospheric pressure 90 times that of Earth. • Atmosphere of sulfuric acid. • Large amount of CO2 causing the Greenhouse Effect.

33. Inner Planets: Earth • 1.0 AU from the sun. • Rotational period 24 hours. • Revolution period of 365.25 days. • One moon. • Atmosphere 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen & 1 % carbon dioxide. • 71 % of Earth’s surface is covered by water.

34. Inner Planets: Mars • 1.5 AU from the sun. • Rotational period 23.9 Earth hours. • Revolution period of 687 Earth days. • Two moons: Phobos & Deimos. • Average temperature range is 144 K to 300 K. • Thin atmosphere of carbon dioxide and some water. • Largest volcano is Olympus Mons. • Polar caps of dry ice.

35. Asteroid Belt • Found between the orbits of Mars & Jupiter. • Trojan refers to asteroids or moons that share the same orbit as a larger planet or moon, but does not collide because it orbits.

36. Outer Planets: Jupiter • 5.0 AU from the sun. • Rotational period 9.9 hours. • Revolution period of 11.9 earth years. • 63 moons including Io, Europa, Ganymede & Callisto. • Has rings. • The Great Red Spot is a major storm on the surface of the planet. • Average temperature of 163 K.

37. Outer Planets: Saturn • 9.6 AU from the sun. • Rotational period 10.7 Earth hours. • Revolution period of 29 Earth years. • Has 47 moons including Titan. • Has a ring system. • Density is less than water. • Average temperature of 133 K.

38. Outer Planets: Uranus • 19 AU from the sun. • Retrograde rotational period 17.2 Earth hours. • Revolution period of 83.7 Earth years. • 27 moons. • Has rings. • Discovered by William Herschel in 1781. • Average temperature is 78 K.

39. Outer Planets: Neptune • 30 AU from the sun. • Rotational period 17 Earth hours. • Revolution period of 164 Earth years. • 13 moons. • Has rings. • Discovered by John Galle in 1846. • Average temperature is 73 K.

40. Planet diameters • Mercury - 4879 km • Venus – 12,104 km • Earth – 12,756 km • Mars – 6794 km • Jupiter – 142,982 km • Saturn – 120,536 km • Uranus – 51,118 km • Neptune – 49,528 km

41. An icy object that has an elongated orbit around the sun is referred to as a(n)…. • Asteroid • Comet • Meteor • Meteorite • I don’t know! 0 of 26 10

42. The flash of light produced when a meteoroid passes through the Earth’s atmosphere is a(n) • Asteroid • Comet • Meteor • Meteorite • I don’t know! 0 of 26 10

43. Why does a meteoroid create a streak of light when entering the Earth’s atmosphere? • Light from the sun is reflected of the surface of each • Energy is released from the objects • Lightning is produced from these objects • Light is a result of friction from the gasses in the atmosphere • I don’t know! 0 of 26 10

44. Which of the following applies to meteoroids and asteroids. • They are similar in size. • They are rocky and/or metallic. • They are composed of frozen gases, ice, and dust. • They orbit the sun in highly elliptical patterns. • I don’t know! 0 of 26 10

45. Which of the following objects would cause the most damage if it hit the Earth? • Asteroid • Meteoroid • Meteorite • Meteor • I don’t know! 0 of 26 10

46. Oort Cloud • The Oort Cloud is the area surrounding the solar system where the comets are found. • Comets are dirty snow balls. • Comets have a head (nucleus & coma) and a tail. • Halley’s comet appears every 76 years.

47. Meteors • Meteoroids are pieces of rock from object such as asteroids that fly through space. • Meteors are meteoroids that are burning up in the earth’s atmosphere (shooting stars). • Meteorites are meteoroids that have landed on the earth’s surface.

48. We are learning to: identify and describe telescopes, probes, satellites, and space craftsWe are looking for:telescope- refracting, reflecting, and radio are used to view distant objectsprobe-machines sent to other locations in the solar system and are used to investigate/explore satellite-orbits around the earth or other planets and are used to take photos and collect dataspace craft-mode of transportation to send humans to locations in the solar system;

49. We are learning to: examine advances of different people, culture, and times in astronomy. We are looking for: examples of how telescopes have changed and been improved over time and their impact on science and technology .

50. Tools to Study the Universe • Reflecting telescopes use mirrors to magnify the image. • Refracting telescopes use lenses to magnify the image. • Radio telescopes collect radio waves to study the stars. • Spectroscopes analyze the light given off by stars to indicate composition, movement and temperature of stars.