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Unit 6: Conflict and Change A study in the uses and abuses of power CRUSADES Lesson #1. Essential Question: Why is there conflict? How can conflict bring two societies closer together? Is it in human nature to dominate? Can one person make a difference?

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unit 6 conflict and change a study in the uses and abuses of power crusades lesson 1

Unit 6: Conflict and ChangeA study in the uses and abuses of powerCRUSADES Lesson #1

Essential Question:

Why is there conflict?

How can conflict bring two societies closer together?

Is it in human nature to dominate?

Can one person make a difference?

Is one person’s freedom fighter another person’s terrorist?

Is fighting ever justified?

slide2
WARM-UPWhat’s going on in this image? What do you see that makes you say that?...…what more can you find?
introduction to medieval times
Introduction to Medieval Times
  • Roman Empire had unified Europe for about 500 years
  • Fall of the Roman Empire in 476 C.E.
  • Starts “Middle Ages” or “Medieval Times”
  • Divided into three periods.
  • Europe had no central government or system of defense.
  • Kingdoms develop around rulers
  • Most powerful rulers controlled the land and had the best warriors.
  • Kingdoms were often at war with one another.
  • People were worried about attack from invading barbarians and neighboring kingdoms, so they trusted in rulers for safety and protection.
charlemagne
Charlemagne
  • Franks powerful group (modern France)
  • New style of warfare that depended on knights.
  • Two major leaders – Clovis and Charlemagne
  • Clovis: military leader; ruled for 30 years; introduced Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church.
  • Charlemagne: “Charles the Great;” ruled for 40 years; unified the Christian lands into a Empire with help of pope Leo III.
  • Charlemagne had “god on his side” (Pope Leo)
  • Named the Holy Roman Emperor in 800 C.E.
  • Empire fell apart after his death in 814 C.E.
  • Charlemagne’s social order was the model for future monarchs under a system of feudalism.
  • VOCABULARY:
    • Christianity: the religion based on life and teachings of Jesus.
    • Charlemagne: the leader of the Franks from 768 to 814 C.E., who unified most of the Christian lands of Europe into a single empire.
a need for order and protection
A Need for Order and Protection
  • Europeans threatened by three major groups:
    • Muslims (Middle East and Northern Africa)
    • Magyars (Central Asia)
    • Vikings (Norway).
  • People looked for ways to defend themselves and their property from an attack.
feudalism
Feudalism
  • A system of social order that establishes protection and safety
  • People bound by promises of loyalty

Monarchs

Lords & Ladies

Knights

Peasants (Serfs)

  • People were born into their social class for life – same social position and often same job as parents.
  • People followed this system to ensure their protection from outside invaders.
  • VOCABULARY
    • Feudalism: social structure system in medieval Europe in which land granted by the King to the nobles was held in turn by vassals and worked on by the peasants
monarchs
Monarchs
  • Monarchs = Kings and Queens
  • Leader of feudal society
  • Expected to keep order and provide protection for the people in their kingdom
  • Believed they had the divine right of kings, the idea God had given them the right to rule.
  • Strong and powerful rulers
lords and ladies
Lords and Ladies
  • Lords and ladies or nobles are the highest-ranking class
  • Lived in manor houses or castles
  • Followed the orders of the monarch
  • Responsibility was to manage and defend his land and the people who worked on it.
  • Lord appointed officials to oversee his village(s) and make sure the peasants farmed the land and paid taxes/duties (a portion of their crops to the lord).
  • Lord was the judge within his manor so he had the power to fine and punish those who broke the law.
  • VOCABULARY:
    • Lord: a ruler or powerful landowner
    • Fief: land granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and service.
knights
Knights
  • Knight are heavily armored warriors on horseback who provided service in war in return for land and protection.
  • In service to a lord and given to the monarchs during wars.
  • To become a knight, you had to have many years of training.
  • Way of life – they lived by a code of chivalry. They were expected to be loyal to the church and their lord, to be just and fair, and to protect the helpless.
  • Knights fought in heavy metal armor in jousts or tournaments when they weren’t at war.
  • VOCABULARY:
    • Chivalry: the medieval knight’s code of ideal behavior, including bravery, loyalty, and respect for women.
peasants
Peasants
  • The majority of people in the Middle Ages were peasants.
  • They worked the land in exchange for protection.
  • Either free or unfree.
  • Serfs were peasants “tied” to the land – meaning they had to work on that land owned by that lord.
  • Owe the lords taxes (yearly “head money,” demand random tax, or tallage, and a marriage fee, a merchet)
  • VOCABULARY:
    • Serf: a peasant who could not leave the lord’s land on which he or she was born and worked.
activity build a feudal manor
Activity: Build a Feudal Manor
  • DESIGN a feudal manor and draw what a day there would look like…
    • Draw the manor house, fields, village, etc.
    • Draw members of each class (king, nobles, knights and peasants/serfs)
      • What do they do on a daily basis?
        • Draw them doing that
activity build a feudal manor1
Activity: Build a Feudal Manor
  • In groups of THREE you will design a feudal manor
  • Each member of the group will have a role:
    • Artist: you will be responsible for drawing the manor – be sure to include the grounds, buildings and people of the manor – on the poster
    • Writer: you will be responsible for the written explanation of the different parts and people using index cards to be added onto the poster
    • Historian: you will be responsible for assisting the artist and writer by researching the parts the manor and helping inform their drawings and writing.
  • Each member will work on his/her assigned task/role
  • Each group will select one or more members to share

out the parts of the manor you designed with the class.

journal reflection
Journal Reflection*
  • Answer ALL of the following questions:
    • Which level of the social pyramid would you MOST want to be a member of? Why?
    • Which level of the social pyramid would you LEAST like to be a member of? Why?
    • Why did the social structure/order exist?
slide16
WARM-UPWhat’s going on in this image? What do you see that makes you say that?...…what more can you find?
growth of medieval towns
Growth of Medieval Towns
  • VOCABULARY:
    • Charter: a written grant of rights and privileges by a ruler or government to a community, class of people, or organization.

The Middle Ages left people scattered across the countryside.

By High Middle Ages, towns began to grow because of improvements in agriculture (farming), which led to a surplus (more than needed) food supply. The surplus brought to town markets to be sold to those who lived in towns or to be traded to other lands.

Merchants who sold their products in town became permanent residents, as did traders. Towns became famous for specific goods/trades.

At first, towns were controlled by a feudal lord, but as the townspeople became wealthy, they didn’t want to pay taxes and didn’t feel they needed the lord’s protection. Some towns used violent struggle to be independent or purchasing a royal charter, which gave them the right to self-govern.

This shifted power from the feudal lords to the merchant and artisan class.

guilds
Guilds
  • VOCABULARY
    • Guild: an organization of people in the same craft or trade.
    • Apprentice: a person who works for a master in a trade or craft in return for training.
  • Organizations that oversaw trade and production of goods (merchant/craft) to provide help and protection for people doing that type of work and maintained high standards
  • Controlled hours, set prices, deal with public complaints, punish mistakes made by members
  • Members pay dues to the guild for these services, guildhalls and guild fairs and festivals, take care of sick members of guild and families.
  • Children had to become an apprentice to a master of the craft at an early age. After seven years, apprentices had to prove they had mastered the trade by producing a “master piece.” If guild approved, then the apprentice was given the right to become a master and set up his/her own business.
  • However, setting up was expensive, so they would become journeymen (journee in French meaning “day”) – find work “by the day” to save up money
trade and commerce
Trade and Commerce
  • Early Middle Ages: trading luxury goods only wealthy could afford
  • High Middle Ages: trading and selling everyday items for everyone
  • Towns had marketplaces and merchant fairs a few times a year.
  • Merchants grow powerful and wealthy.
  • Prejudice against Jews led to laws (can’t own land, belongings taken, attacked), but they can be bankers and moneylenders (“wicked” trade).
homes and households
Homes and Households
  • Small, cold, smoky, dim, crowded, built of wood and up to four stories high
  • Poor: several families live in a single house
  • Rich: own homes with first floor business, second floor living quarters, and upper level servants’ quarters.
  • Fireplaces only source of heat and main light (with candles)
  • Most worked where they lived
  • Half the children died before adulthood or become apprentice at age seven
  • Orderly society in which people knew their place.
disease and medical treatments
Disease and Medical Treatments
  • Unhealthy living led to disease.
  • No running water: outdoor privies (shelters used as toilets) or chamber pots.
  • Garbage tossed into streets, streams, canals, etc.
  • People bath only once a week (if that).
  • Rats and fleas were common.
  • Diseases with no known cure: measles, cholera, small pox, scarlet fever, leprosy (isolated) and bubonic plague (the Black Death).
  • Hospitals invented, but few exist so treated in homes by family or doctors.
  • Doctors believed in prayer and medical treatments (herbs, ointments, etc.)
crime and punishments
Crime and Punishments
  • VOCABULARY:
    • Common Law: a body of rulings made by judges or very old traditional laws that become part of a nation’s legal system.
  • There were many pickpockets and thieves
  • Dangerous at night with no light (night watch patrol the streets)
  • Criminals held in dirty, crowded jails
  • Prisoners rely on friends to bring them food and money (starve and harm)
  • Trial by ordeal/combat was used to determine guilt or innocence.
  • Ordeal: Pass a dangerous test, like thrown in a deep well (float = guilty because rejected by water; drown = innocent but dead)
  • Combat: fight to prove innocence because God would save the innocent (clergy, women, children and disabled could have someone fight for them).
  • Punishments harsh – fined, stocks, hanged, burned at stake, executions public
  • Begin setting up system of royal courts, which creates common law.
  • End of Middle Ages, there are court trials of written and oral evidence.
leisure and entertainment
Leisure and Entertainment
  • Dolls and toys (wooden swords, balls, hobbyhorse, etc.).
  • Hoops, badminton, lawn bowling, blind man’s bluff, chess, checkers, backgammon, and cards, go dancing, etc.
  • Religious feasts on Sundays and holidays guilds staged plays (Bible stories)
create your own guild
Create your own Guild
  • Divide into pairs
  • Each student will choose a role
    • Guild Artist: Design and draw the crest for your guild – write a paragraphs explaining your design
    • Guild Leader: Make decision for the guild after asking the members and then writing the rules done
  • The pair will decide if they are a merchant guild or a craft guild
  • The pair will decide the job of the guild
  • Design a crest for your guild – a symbol to represent it
  • Write the rules of your guild – work hours, prices, procedure for complaints, dues, welfare, initiation into the guild, rules for apprenticeship, etc.
journal reflection1
Journal Reflection*
  • Answer ALL of the following questions:
    • What was life like for people in the Middle Ages?
    • Would you have liked to live then? Why or why not?
    • What would you do for a job if you lived then? Why?
journal reflection2
Journal Reflection
  • Answer ALL of the following questions:
    • Which level of the social pyramid would you MOST want to be a member of? Why?
    • Which level of the social pyramid would you LEAST like to be a member of? Why?
    • Why did the social structure/order exist?
homework
Homework

Make up any missing work

Wednesday Lunch Tutoring

After school Monday and Wednesday for help!