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THE BLACK PANTHER PARTY. BY JOSE VILLAGOMEZ. INTRODUCTION. THE BLACK PANTHER PARTY WAS A GROUP ASSOCIATED WITH AFRICAN AMERICANS AND RACISM. THE GROUP EXISTED FROM LATE 1966 THROUGH 1976, WHICH MEANS THAT THE GROUP ONLY EXISTED FOR ABOUT TEN YEARS.

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the black panther party

THE BLACK PANTHER PARTY

BY

JOSE VILLAGOMEZ

introduction
INTRODUCTION
  • THE BLACK PANTHER PARTY WAS A GROUP ASSOCIATED WITH AFRICAN AMERICANS AND RACISM.
  • THE GROUP EXISTED FROM LATE 1966 THROUGH 1976, WHICH MEANS THAT THE GROUP ONLY EXISTED FOR ABOUT TEN YEARS.
  • THE GROUP WAS FOUNDED IN CALIFORNIA IN LATE 1966 BY BOBBY SEALE AND HUEY P. NEWTON.
the ten point program
THE TEN POINT PROGRAM
  • THE BLACK PANTHER PARTY CREATED THE TEN POINT PROGRAM BY CREATING TEN STATEMENTS TELLING THE WORLD WHAT THEY DEMAND.

1.) “WE WANT POWER TO DETERMINE THE DESTINY OF OUR BLACK AND OPPRESSED COMMUNITIES’ EDUCATION THAT TEACHES OUR TRUE HISTORY AND THE ROLE IN THE PRESENT DAY SOCIETY.”

2.) “WE WANT COMPLETELY FREE HEALTH CARE FOR ALL BLACK AND OPPRESSED PEOPLE.”

3.) “WE WANT AN IMMEDIATE END TO POLICE BRUTALITY AND MURDER OF BLACK PEOPLE, OTHER PEOPLE OF COLOR, ALL OPPRESSED PEOPLE IN THE UNITED STATES.”

4.) “WE WANT AN IMMEDIATE END TO ALL WARS OF AGGRESSION.”

5.) “WE WANT FULL EMPLOYMENT FOR OUR PEOPLE.”

the ten point program continued
THE TEN POINT PROGRAM - CONTINUED

6.) “WE WANT AN END TO THE ROBBERY BY THE CAPITALISTS OF THEIR BLACK COMMUNITY.”

7.) “WE WANT DECENT HOUSING, FIT FOR THE SHELTER OF HUMAN BEINGS.”

8.) “WE WANT DECENT EDUCATION FOR OUR PEOPLE THAT EXPOSES THE TRUE NATURE OF THIS DECADENT AMERICAN SOCIETY.”

9.) “WE WANT FREEDOM FOR ALL BLACK AND OPPRESSED PEOPLE NOW HELD IN U.S, FEDERAL, STATE, COUNTY, CITY AND MILITARY PRISONS AND JAILS. WE WANT TRIALS BY A JURY OF PEERS FOR ALL PERSONS CHARGED WITH SO CALLED CRIMES UNDER THE LAWS OF THIS COUNTRY.”

10.) “WE WANT LAND, BREAD, HOUSING, EDUCATION, CLOTHING, JUSTICE, PEACE AND PEOPLE’S COMMUNITY CONTROL OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY.”

political activities
POLITICAL ACTIVITIES
  • THE BLACK PANTHER PARTY QUICKLY UNITED WITH THE STUDENT NONVIOLENT COORDINATING COMMITTEE, HEADED BY THE STOKELY CARMICHAEL (WHICH LATER BECAME KNOWN AS KWAME TURE) .
  • IN 1967, THE PARTY CREATED A PROTEST IN FRONT OF THE CALIFORNIA STATE CAPITAL AGAINST THEIR ATTEMPT TO OUTLAW CARRYING LOADED WEAPONS IN PUBLIC.
  • IN 1968, THE MINISTER OF THE PARTY ELDRIDGE CLEAVER RAN FOR PRESIDENTIAL OFFICE ON THE PEACE AND FREEDOM LINEUP.
newton s arrest
NEWTON’S ARREST
  • HUEY P. NEWTON WAS ARRESTED FOR AN ALLEGED MURDER.
  • PEOPLE WOULD CREATE A “FREE HUEY” CAMPAIGN, WHICH WAS MADE BY ELRIDGE CLEAVER TO HELP NEWTON’S LEGAL DEFENSE.
  • HE ENDED UP BEING CONVICTED, BUT OVERTURNED IN THE 70S.
their involvement
THEIR INVOLVEMENT
  • IN EARLY 1968, THE BLACK PANTHER PARTY WAS INVOLVED IN A GUN BATTLE, WHERE PANTHER BOBBY HUTTON WAS MURDERED.
  • ONE OF THE MAIN GOALS OF THER BLACK PANTHER PARTY WAS TO STOPABUSE BY LOCAL POLICE DEPARTMENTS.
  • WHEN THE PARTY WAS FIRST FORMED IN THE 1960’S, ONLY 16 OUT OF ABOUT 650 POLICE OFFICERS WERE AFRICAN AMERICAN.
the murder of two panthers
THE MURDER OF TWO PANTHERS
  • WHEN THE PARTY WAS ACTIVE FROM 1966 – 1972, MOST POLICE DEPARTMENTS HAVE HIRED MORE AFRICAN AMERICAN OFFICERS.
  • IN 1969 IN CHICAGO, TWO PANTHERS, MARK CLARK AND FRED HAMPTON WERE MURDEREDBY THE POLICE.
  • THE FIVE POLICE OFFICERS THERE WERE ALL AFRICAN – AMERICANS.
  • THE TWO PANTHERS WERE KILLLED BY JAMES DAVIS.
warfare with cointelpro
WARFARE WITH COINTELPRO
  • BY AUGUST 1967, THE FBI CREATED ITS PROGRAM KNOWN AS “COINTELPRO” TO CANCEL “BLACK NATIONALIST HATE GROUPS”.
  • EVEN TOUGH IF “COINTELPRO” WAS COMMISSIONED TO PREVENT VIOLENCE, IT HAS USED SOME TACTICS TO FOSTER VIOLENCE.
  • IN EARLY 1969, MEMBERS OF THE PARTY HAVE KILLED ALEX RACKLEY, WHO WAS A MEMBER OF THE PARTY.THEY SUSPECTED THAT HE WAS A POLICE INFORMAT.
warfare with cointelpro cont
WARFARE WITH COINTELPRO (CONT.)
  • THE PEOPLE WHO WERE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE MURDER GAVE THEMSELVES IN.
  • THE PARTY MEMBERS WHO WERE RESPONSIBLE WERE WARREN KIMBRO, GEORGE SAMS, JR., AND LONNIE MCLUCAS.
  • AFTER THE MURDER, SUPPORTERS FROM THE PARTY HAVE ALLEGED THAT SAMS WAS THE SNITCH & AN AGENT PROVOCATEUR EMPLOYED BY THE FBI.
support
SUPPORT
  • IN FEBUARY 1968, A HUGE RALLY WAS HELD FOR NEWTON IN THE OAKLAND AUDITORIUM.
  • THE SPEAKERS AT THE EVENT INCLUDED STOKELY CARMICHAEL, H. RAP BROWN, AND JAMES FORMAN.
  • THE PARTY’S SLOGANS HAVE SPREAD IN A LOT OF LOCATIONS.
  • AT THE SUMMER OLYMPICS OF 1968, TOMMIE SMITH AND JOH CARLOS WHO WERE TWO AMERICAN MEDALISTS, GAVE THE BLACK POWER SALUTE DURING THE SINGING OF THE AMERICAN NATIONLA ANTHEM.
  • THE INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEE HAVE BANNED BOTH MEN FROM THE OLYMPIC GAMES FOR LIFE.
violence
VIOLENCE
  • IN LATE 1967, POLICE OFFICER JOHN FREY WAS SHOT TO DEATH IN AN ALTERCATION WITH NEWTON DURING A TRAFFIC STOP.
  • IN THE STOP, NEWTON ALONG WITH BACKUP OFFICER HERBERT HEANES ALSO WENT THROUGH GUN WOUNDS.
  • NEWTON WAS THEN CONVICTED OF VOLUNTARY MANSLAUGHTER AT TRIAL.
violence cont
VIOLENCE (CONT.)
  • IN APRIL 1968, MEMBER BOBBY HUTTON, WHO HELD THE TITLE OF THE MINISTRY OF DEFENSE GOT KILLED WHILE CLEAVER WAS WOUNDED IN A SHOOTOUT WITH THE OAKLAND POLICE.
  • FROM THE FALL OF 1967 THROUGH THE END OF 1969, NINE POLICE OFFICERS WERE KILLED AND ABOUT 55 WERE WOUNDED IN CONFRONTATIONS WITH THE PANTHERS.
the decay
THE DECAY
  • THE BLACK PANTHER PARTY HAD TO EVENTUALLY FALL APART BECAUSE OF RISING LEGAL COSTS AND INTERNAL DISPUTES.
  • BY 1974, NEWTON ASSIGNED ELAINE BROWN AS THE FIRST CHAIRWOMAN OF THE PARTY.
  • UNDER HER LEADERSHIP, THEY BECAME INVOLVED IN ORGANIZING FOR MORE RADICAL ELECTORAL CAMPAIGNS, INCLUDING HER UNSUCCESSFUL RUN FOR OAKLAND CITYCOUNCIL AND LIONEL WILSON’S SUCCESSFUL ELECTION AS THE FIRST AFRICAN AMERICAN MAYOR OF OAKLAND.
the decay cont
THE DECAY (CONT.)
  • IN 1977 AFTER NEWTON RETURNED FROM CUBA AND ORDERED THE BEATING OF A WOMAN PANTHER WHO PUT TOGETHER MOST OF THE PARTY’S SOCIAL PROGRAMS, BROWN DECIDED THAT SHE NEEDED TO REST FOR A WHILE AND LEFT THE PARTY.
pictures
PICTURES
  • (LEFT): THE PANTHERS AT A RALLY.
  • (RIGHT): BLACK PANTHER LOGO.
pictures cont
PICTURES (CONT.)
  • (LEFT): HUEY P. NEWTON.
  • (RIGHT): BOBBY SEALE.
pictures cont18
PICTURES (CONT.)
  • (LEFT): FROM LEFT BOBBY SEALE + HUEY P. NEWTON.
  • (RIGHT): ELRIDGE CLEAVER’S BOOK “SOUL ON ICE”
timeline
TIMELINE
  • OCTOBER 1966 – BOBBY SEALE + HUEY NEWTON HAVE FOUND THE BLACK PANTHER PARTY OF SELF DEFENSE IN OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA.
  • MAY 1967 – ARMED PARTNERS INVADE THE CAPITOL IN CALIFORNIA TO PROTECT LEGISLATION LIMITING THEIR RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS.
  • MARCH 1968 – ELRIDGE CLEAVER PUBLISHES “SOUL ON ICE”, WHICH BECAME A BEST – SELLER.
  • APRIL 1968 – SHOOT OUT BETWEEN PANTHERS AND OAKLAND POLICE LEAVES 17 YEAR OLD PANTHER BOBBY HUTTON KILLED.
  • SEPTEMBER 1968 – NEWTON FOUND GUILTY OF VOLUNTARY MANSLAUGHTER OF AN OAKLAND POLICE OFFFICER AND WAS SENTENCED TO 15 YEARS.
  • JANUARY 1969 – UCLA SHOOT OUT BETWEEN PANTHERS AND THE U S ORGANIZATION KILLS LEADERS JOHN HIGGINS + BUNCHY CARTER.
  • SEPTEMBER 1969 – OPENING OF THE CHICAGO EIGHT TRIAL. BOBBY SEALE AND SEVEN OTHERS WERE ACCUSED OF CROSSING STATE LINES TO INCITE RIOTING AT THE 1968 DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION.
timeline cont
TIMELINE (CONT.)
  • DECEMBER 1969 – A PREDAWN RAID BY POLICE LEAVES PANTHERS FRED HAMPTION AND MARK CLARK DEAD IN CHICAGO.
  • AUGUST 1974 – NEWTON WAS CHARGED WITH MURDERING A PROSTITUTE + PISTOL – WHIPPING A TAILOR AND FLEES TO CUBA, TURNING THE PARTY OVER TO ELAINE BROWN. HE RETURNS THREE YEARS LATER, AND IS IN/OUT OF PRISON FOR THAT OFFENSE AND FOR OTHERS FOR THE NEXT 15 YEARS.
  • JANUARY 1976 – A SENATE INTELLIGENCE COMMITTEE REVEALS THE CONTENTS OF AN FBI REPORT THAT SHOWS THAT THE FBI ENCOURAGED WARFARE BETWEEN BLACK GROUPSIN CALIFORNIA IN THE LATE ’60S.
  • AUGUST 1989 – HUEY NEWTON IS KILLED IN WEST OAKLAND.
bibliography
BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • http://www.discoverthenetworks.org/groupProfile.asp?grpid=7375
  • http://www.gibbsmagazine.com/Black%20Panther%20Pty.htm
  • http://www.blackpanther.org/TenPoint.htm
  • http://www.blackpanther.org/legacynew.htm
  • http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USApantherB.htm
  • http://xroads.virginia.edu/~UG01/hughes/time.html
  • http://indigenousrights.net.au/timeline.asp?startyear=1960
  • Austin, Curtis J. (2006). Up Against the Wall: Violence in the Making and Unmaking of the Black Panther Party. University of Arkansas Press
  • Forbes, Flores A. (2006). Will You Die With Me? My Life and the Black Panther Party. Atria Books
picture sources
PICTURE SOURCES
  • http://www.nationalexpositor.com/files.php?file=BP_296125199.jpg
  • http://www.ilkahartmann.com/members/jbrave/phototext.nsf/topiclu/A7AAA06DCE719A5688256D9700698816/$FILE/bobby_seale_speaking_at_black_panther_party_rally_mayday_1969_san_francisco.jpg
  • http://api.ning.com/files/0a7HFZ033ULyAZ8ATfMtudB3MOBSAeLhcYkBC1AQvmJrG2Bu8at*OKcjhA0owIkjt2UCjwFULjwJSJKcVVp2JCGN2XkCwQSG/HueyP.jpg
  • http://www.wntb.com/blackachievers/bobbyseale/bobbyseale.jpg
  • http://bjanepr.files.wordpress.com/2008/07/huey-newton-bobby-seale.gif
  • http://www.thenewblackmagazine.com/Photofiles/eldridge%20cleaver.jpg