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Defining the target behavior

Teachers often feel that they only have 4 options in dealing with behaviors. Ignore the problem and hope it goes away Refer the student/s to an assistant principal Call the students’ parents and ask for help Apply a consequence, such as detention or some other punishment.

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Defining the target behavior

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  1. Teachers often feel that they only have 4 options in dealing with behaviors.Ignore the problem and hope it goes awayRefer the student/s to an assistant principalCall the students’ parents and ask for helpApply a consequence, such as detention or some other punishment

  2. Defining the target behavior • Observable • Measurable • Clear and concise • Complete

  3. Procedures for Collecting Data • Steps in the behavior change process • select target behavior • collect and record baseline data • identify reinforcers • implement interventions, collect and record intervention data • evaluate the effects of the intervention

  4. Select the target behavior • The target behavior is the behavior to be changed or modified. • The target behavior may be an existing behavior that needs to be increased or decreased or a non-occurring behavior. • Considerations of target behavior; type of behavior, frequency of behavior, duration of behavior, intensity of behavior

  5. Hawthorne Effect • Have already discussed this project with your subjects. That means when you collect your baseline data that it has been compromised…. • People will do better (or worse) than typical if they know…. so the baseline data is not valid.

  6. Factors • danger to individual or others • frequency • duration • behavior will produce higher level of reinforcement for individual than other behaviors • impact of behavior on skill development • if learning the behavior will reduce the negative attention that the individual receives • if learning the behavior will increase reinforcement for others in the individual’s environment • difficulty (time and energy) to be expended to change behavior • cost involved in changing behavior

  7. Order of priorities • Behaviors that risk the child’s life • Behaviors that risk the child’s continuing to live with the family • Behaviors that limit the child’s participation in special education • Behaviors that limit the child’s adaptation to the community outside home and school

  8. Infrequent behaviors • Some behaviors occur so infrequently that they do not require a formal program • for example: • annual 2 minute tantrum • occasional reading reversal • infrequent falling out of his seat • monthly bus-missing behavior

  9. Behavior change directions • Increase group participation, in-seat behavior, interactions with peers, typing skills, reading rate, number skills, study skills • Decrease • verbal outbursts, inattentiveness, use of four letter words, food intake, smoking, talking during study period, spelling errors

  10. Target behavior selection • select only one behavior • analyze behavior for frequency, duration, intensity and type • is behavior to be decreased or increased (direction of behavior change) • is the behavior observable • is the behavior measurable in numeric terms • describe the behavior in precise, descriptive terminology

  11. Ask yourself? • Can you count the number of times the behavior has occurred in a given amount of time? • Can you describe the target behavior so that someone who is unfamiliar with what you are doing will know exactly what to look for? • Have you broken down the behavior down to its smallest components • Is the definition valid? Can every instance of the behavior be captured? Is the definition reliable? Can two or more observers record the same occurrences and non-occurrences of the behavior?

  12. Behavioral Dimensions • FREQUENCY • The number of times a behavior occurs. • When determining frequency of occurrence of a behavior, we count the number of times the behavior occurs within an observation period.

  13. RATE • frequency expressed in ratio with time • can compare frequency data in non-standardized observation periods or opportunities to respond. • Rate is calculated by dividing the number of times a behavior occurred by the length of the observation period.

  14. Duration • a measurement of how long a behavior lasts • Duration is important when the concern is not the number of times a behavior occurs but how long

  15. Latency • length of time between instructions to perform it and the occurrence of the behavior • Latency is relevant when the concern is not how long it takes a student to do something, but how long it takes to begin to do it

  16. Topography • what the behavior looks like • topography describes a behavior’s complexity or its motor components. • It may involve many behaviors performed together.

  17. Force • the intensity of the behavior

  18. Locus • describes where it occurs, either in the environment, or on the individuals body. • Locus describes the target of the behavior or where in the environment the behavior is taking place

  19. Project 2 • For the purpose of project 2 - we will be using behavioral dimensions. • frequency • rate • duration • latency • topography • force • locus

  20. Project 2: • Identify and define a target behavior • students will identify a target behavior of the selected participant to increase. The target behavior must be observable. Identify the DIMENSIONS of the target behavior and define it so it can be measured reliably. Tell why you chose this behavior for the participant. How will increasing the behavior make a difference in the life of the participant?

  21. Change of topics…..

  22. Three general categories of collecting data for behavioral information • Reviewing and analyzing written reports • Observation • Recording a sample of the behavior as it occurs

  23. Methods of obtaining information • Interviewing the student • Interviewing others • Testing the student • Directly observing the student

  24. Issues in assessment • What people say vs. what they do • Tolerance levels • Ecological factors • Reactivity to assessment

  25. Recording systems • Permanent product - outcomes of behavior • Observational recording systems • event recording - counts • interval recording - counts • time sampling - counts • duration - temporal • latency - temporal

  26. Permanent Product • Recording tangible items or environmental effects that result from a behavior; for example written academic work

  27. Event recording • Recording a tally or frequency count of behavior as it occurs within an observation period; an observational recording procedure

  28. Interval recording • An observational recording system in which an observation period is divided into a number of short intervals. The observer counts the number of intervals when the behavior occurs

  29. Time sampling • An observational recording system in which an observation period is divided into equal intervals; the target behavior is observed at the end of each interval

  30. Duration • Recording the amount of time between the initiation of a response and its conclusion; an observational recording procedure

  31. Latency • Recording the amount of time between the presentation of the cue and the initiation of a response.

  32. Figures • 4-3 Observational data collection systems pg 107 • Figure 4-23 Selected observational recording procedures pg 131

  33. FACTORS • Reactivity - presence of an observer • Observer drift - change the stringency of operational definitions • Complexity - observational coding system • Expectancy - bias interpretation of results

  34. Classroom Observation • handout

  35. Recording sheets • Develop a recording sheet for your baseline data collection.

  36. Graphing Data • Graphs should be simple and uncluttered • Purposes for graphs: • means for organization • formative & summative program evaluation • vehicle for communication • commonly used to display data in a serial manner across duration of instruction or intervention

  37. Simple Line Graph • Set of boundaries • axes • x-axis - abscissa, horizontal • y-axis - ordinate, vertical • Axes are drawn in a ratio of 2:3 • If y = 2, then x = 3

  38. Abscissa • The x-axis serves as the boundary of the graph. • Shows how frequently data were collected during the period represented on the graph. • The right boundary of the graph ends at the last session. • Horizontal line – bottom boundary

  39. Ordinate • Vertical line serves as the left-hand boundary of the graph. • The label identifies the target behavior and kind of data that is being reported.

  40. Simple line graph

  41. Can you label the following parts ? • Abscissa • Ordinate • Abscissa label • Ordinate label • Ordinate scale • Data point • Data path

  42. Simple line graph

  43. Definitions • Ordinate scale - scale on the y axis, used to record the performance of the target behavior, ALWAYS begins with zero • Scale break - when the ordinate scale is not continuous, it is permissible to begin the scale at zero, draw two horizontal lines between the first and second lines on the graph paper, & label the 2nd line 50%.

  44. Data Point • Each data point is individually plotted. The placement or value does not affect the placement or value of the next data point. • Small geometric forms, such as circles, squares, or triangles are used to represent the occurrences of the target behavior during a specific time segment.

  45. Data Path • When a solid line is drawn connecting the data points, it forms the data path. • A single geometric shape is used to represent each point on a single data path. • When more than one path is represented - each path is represented by a different geometric shape. • No more than 3 different paths should be plotted on a single graph. • Continuity break- 2 parallel hash marks are placed on the data path to indicate a break in the sequence of the intervention

  46. Student identification • the name of the student(s) is placed in a box in the bottom right hand corner of the page of the graph.

  47. Permanent Product Data • number of items or percentage of terms resulting from behavior • % of correct responses can be calculated by dividing the number of correct responses by the total number of responses and multiplying the result by 100. • Ex. % of correctly spelled words, # of math problems completed

  48. Event Data • May be recorded as • # of occurrences of a behavior if the amount of time is consistent across sessions • # of correct or a % if there are a consistent # of opportunities to respond • a % correct if the # of opportunities to respond varies

  49. Rate Data • Required when concerned about accuracy and speed • Rate data reflect fluency of performance and allow judgements about the development of proficiency. • If the responding varies from session to session, rate must be calculated so that the data can be compared. • See figure 5-6, p. 149

  50. Interval and Time Sampling • Reported as the number or percent of total observed intervals during which the behavior occurs (usually reported as %). • Interval data is usually divided into short segments of time, if the targeted behavior occurred any time within that interval, it is counted. • Time sampling data is divided into periods of time, and behaviors are counted if they occur at the end of the interval.

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