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Punctuation. Ⅰ.Brackets([ ]) 1.Brackets are used to indicate editorial corrections or explanations in quoted matter. He wrote: “ One great poet of the Song dynasty[Su Shi] said that in Wang Wei’s poetry there was painting and in his paintings there was poetry.”.

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punctuation

Punctuation

Ⅰ.Brackets([ ])

1.Brackets are used to indicate editorial corrections or explanations in quoted matter.

He wrote: “ One great poet of the Song dynasty[Su Shi] said that in Wang Wei’s poetry there was painting and in his paintings there was poetry.”

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2.Brackets are used to replace parentheses within parentheses:

William Strunk Jr. and E. B. White wrote a very useful little book for students learning to write.

the dash
Ⅱ.The Dash(―)

1.The dash marks a break in thought or a change in tone(语气)

I went through a lot of terrible ordeals(苦难的经历) in those chaotic years ― but who didn’t?

2.The dash indicates an unfinished or interrupted statement:

“This is really ― really ― disappointing.”

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3.The dash sets off a parenthetical element(插入的元素)

Three countries ― Spain,Italy and Hungary(匈牙利) ― abstained(弃权).

4.The dash is sometimes used to introduce a final summarizing clause after a series of nouns that refer to the subject of the clause:

Father,Mother,John and Susan ― all were surprised by my announcement.

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5.Some writers use the dash just like quotation(引语) marks in a dialogue:

― Have you seen my hat?

― It is on the chair over there.

6.The dash is sometimes used to introduce subheadings and authors after quotations:

The Growth of the Green Parties

——A General Survey

the slash
Ⅲ.The Slash(/)

1.The slash indicates alternatives:

This university provides scholarships and/or loans.

The sentence means that this university provides scholarships or loans or both.

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2.The slash is used to separate lines in short quoatations of poetry being quoted in running text

3.When fractions (分数) are written in a sentence, a slash is used to separate the numerator(分子) from the denominator(分母):

A kilometre is 31/50 of a mile.

4.Sometimes the slash means “per”

italics and underlining
Ⅳ.Italics and Underlining

※In handwritten and typewritten papers underlining has the same function as italics in printed matter.

1.Titles of books, periodicals(期刊), newspapers,plays,long poems,movies and operas are underlined or italicized:

He reads the People’s Daily every day.

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2.Foreign words are usually underlined or italicized:

There was a big kang in the room.

3.Names of ships and aircraft and titles of works of art are underlined or italicized:

I sailed on the Changjiang River on board the Dongfanghong Ⅱ.

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4.Words or letters referred to as such are underlined or italcized:

The letters u in words like neighbour and favour is dropped in American English.

5.Sometimes underlining or italics indicate emphasis:

What a man does is more important than what he says.

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