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Intro to Chemistry. Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 A Preview of Coming Attractions. RIGOROUS . ONLY INTENDED FOR MATURE STUDENTS!. Do last!. Taking notes.

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intro to chemistry

Intro to Chemistry

Chapter 1 and Chapter 2

A Preview of Coming Attractions




taking notes

Do last!

Taking notes...

Summary Section…one or two sentences about this page of notes





Main part for Notes



. Use bullet points






.. Abbreviate


. Draw pictures to

. help you.


. You do not have

. to write in . complete . sentences.

Main Part for Notes

  • Take notes in the MAIN part of the page.
  • The CUES are hints. Cover up the main part and see if the cues help you to recall that information when you study.
  • The SUMMARY is what the page is all about. Or you can add something later in this part.
  • Use loose leaf paper and a binder.

Do 2nd

Do this part first.

  • Chemistry in Japanese
  • Literally means “change study.”
  • Chemistry is the study of matter: the composition of matter and the changes matter undergoes.
  • Did you start taking notes yet?
  • Chemistry in Spanish
  • From Google Translate…
  • La química es el estudio de la materia: la composición de la materia y la materia sufre cambios.
5 branches of chem
5 Branches of Chem
  • Organic
    • Contains Carbon (C)
  • Inorganic
    • Contains anything on the Periodic Table BUT not C.
  • Biochemistry (chemistry inside living things)
  • Analytical (like on CSI)
  • Physical (lots of math, including calculus)
8 big ideas
8 Big Ideas
  • Pg 4&5 lists 8 Big Ideas which the chemistry book is organized around.
  • Read these 2 pages tonight. You do not have to MEMORIZE the Big Ideas, but you should be familiar with them.
  • Right now, we are in Big Idea 1. Using the Table of Contents in the book, see if you can figure out what chapters go with each Big Idea.
accidental chem
Accidental Chem
  • Pg 12&13 lists 4 “accidents” which ended up making millions of dollars or more.
  • Sticky Notes were invented because a chemist accidentally made some glue which didn’t stick very well. If you pulled on the paper, it would peel right off.
  • His work sat on the shelf for about 6 years until and idea popped into his head about how to use it.
the ancient greeks 400 bc
The Ancient Greeks~ 400 BC
  • Aristotle suggested that everything was composed of 4 elements:
    • Water, Air, Earth and Fire
  • He later added a 5th element which he called “aether” which the stars and the heavens were made from.
  • Aristotle also said that “cold” was a substance he called primumfrigidum, and that “cold” came from water.
  • People actually believed this up until the middle ages (1500s at least).
  • Click on the next slide to see three of these “ancient elements.”
earth wind fire http www earthwindandfire com bio html
Earth Wind & Fire(

Yes, I’m “old school.” But I love these guys. And, I even saw them in concert once, back in the 80’s. OK, back to chemistry on the NEXT slide…If you don’t have these guys on your iPod or phone, get some. Tonight. Seriously.

antoine lavoisier http www answers com topic antoine lavoisier
Antoine Lavoisier(

Father of Modern Chemistry

Demonstrated experimentally the principle later renamed “The Law of Conservation of Mass” in Chapter 2 and later in this power point.

Turned chemistry from a series of observations into a science of careful measurement that it is today.

Wrote the first Chemistry textbook, which his wife Marie Anne translated from French into English.

Beheaded on 5/2/1794 by guillotine during the French Revolution at age of 50.

the scientific method same one you ve been studying since elementary school
The Scientific MethodSame one you’ve been studyingsince elementary school.
  • Observation
    • Use your senses to make observations and suggest questions.
  • Hypothesis
    • A testable “educated guess.”
  • Experiment
    • Supports and proves your hypothesis (or doesn’t support and disproves)
isn t there more
Isn’t there MORE?
  • Analysis of Data
    • Analyze data collected during the experiment.
  • Conclusion
    • What happened?
    • Was your hypothesis supported or not (try NOT to think of it as success vs failure)?
    • How could you improve your experiment?
    • How could you expand upon your original experiment?
scientific theory
Scientific Theory
  • Theory
    • A detailed explanation explaining why an experiment works the way it does.
    • A theory can never be PROVEN completely true.
      • A theory can always be disproved if new data doesn’t support the theory.
      • If that happens, theory needs to be revised or discarded.
scientific law
Scientific Law
  • Law
    • A law is a statement of fact, usually concerning a natural phenomenon. Laws are always true, but it doesn’t explain how or why.
  • Theories explain why. Laws just tell you what it is.
    • Law of Gravity
    • Theory of Evolution
  • Lets talk about an important law in Chapter 2:
variables in experiments
Variables in Experiments
  • Independent
    • Variable “I” change and it is graphed on “x” axis
  • Dependent
    • Variable which “Depends” on independent variable
    • Tested during experiment and it is graphed on “y” axis
  • Control
    • Variables you control so they do not change and mess up your experiment & NEVER GRAPHED
the law of conservation of mass
The Law of Conservation of Mass
  • In any chemical reaction or physical change, matter can neither be created nor destroyed (page 50)
  • The amount of matter (mass) doesn’t change.
  • However, the identity of the matter (what type of substance it is) could change.
  • mass of the reactancts = mass of the products
problem solving
Problem Solving
  • Plan before you even TOUCH your calculator.
    • This should take most of the time you spend on a problem.
  • Calculate (in other words, work your plan)
    • This should be the quickest step.
  • Evaluate your answer (most people skip this step).
    • Does it make any sense?
chapter 2 big idea chem as a central science
Chapter 2. Big Idea = Chem as a Central Science
  • Back to matter…matter has mass and volume.
    • Intensive property—depends on the type of matter.
    • Extensive property—depends on the amount of matter.
  • Matter can be broken down into substances and mixtures.
    • Substances are pure.
      • Elements (smallest part of an element is an atom)
      • Compounds (smallest part of a compound is a molecule)
    • Mixtures of substances. NOT bonded together.
      • Mixtures are either homogeneous or heterogenous.
physical properties
Physical Properties
  • Matter has both physical and chemical properties.
  • Physical properties can be observed without CHANGING the type of matter.
  • When solid water (ice) melts it becomes liquid water. A change of state is a physical change (Δ or delta means change).
  • Physical changes are NOT permanent and are reversible.
chemical properties
Chemical Properties
  • Chemical properties can be ONLY be observed BY CHANGING the type of matter.
    • Chemical properties are permanent and not reversible.
  • When salt is dissolved in water, a solution is formed. That is a physical change. The salt is still salt and the water is still water. You can separate them easily by evaporating the water.
chemical properties1
Chemical Properties
  • But when sodium oxide (Na2O) is dissolved in water it dissolves, but then a chemical reaction occurs. That is a chemical change. Sodium oxide reacts with water to form sodium hydroxide (NaOH). If you evaporate the water, you will have solid NaOH not Na2O.
    • Sodium oxide has different chemical properties compared to salt, and so it reacts differently.
  • We write the reaction as

Na2O + H2O  2 NaOH

  • That’s your first chemical “sentence.” The reaction describes a chemical change. You need to be able to identify a property or change as being either chemical or physical for the test next week!
why does one react and the other doesn t
Why does one react and the other doesn’t?
  • Well, that’s chemistry. It’s not all that complicated but the answer won’t make much sense right now.
  • We still have a lot to learn.
  • But, by the end of the course (Jan or June) it should make a lot more sense.
states of matter
States of Matter
  • Solid *
  • Liquid *
  • Gas *
    • A vapor is a substance that is generally solid or liquid at room temperature, but is in the gaseous state (like steam or water vapor).
  • Plasma
    • Only observed at extremely high temperatures (several thousand degrees)
  • Bose-Einstein condensates and Fermionic condensates
    • Only observed at extremely low temperatures (within a degree or less of absolute zero).
substances vs mixtures
Substances vs mixtures
  • Carbon is a substance.
  • Water is a substance.
  • Air is a mixture of substances (O2, N2, CO2, etc)
    • It is a homogenous mixture.
    • What is the 3rd most abundant component of air?
  • A salad is a heterogeneous mixture.
substances vs mixtures1
Substances vs mixtures?
  • You try some
    • Methane (natural gas)
    • Coffee
    • Copper
    • Salt
    • Dirt
    • Sand
what are physical separation techniques techniques for separating mixtures
What are physical separation techniques? Techniques for separating mixtures.
  • Evaporation—can separate DISSOLVED solids from the liquid.
  • Filtration—can separate UNDISSOLVED solids from the liquid.
  • Decanting—can separate a dense solid from the liquid (because the solid is on the bottom and you can pour off the liquid).
  • Distillation—can separate a mixture of liquids by boiling them and condensing the vapors (check out the distillation apparatus at the bottom of pg 40).
a physical separation technique sometimes tested on the sol
A physical separation technique sometimes tested on the SOL.
  • Chromatography
    • Can be used to separate a mixture of solids dissolved in a liquid.
      • Ink
      • Natural dyes
substances elements
Substances: Elements
  • Elements are on the Periodic Table. 90 occur naturally (1-92 except for 43Tc and 61Pm). 118 elements exist (but 113 Uut, 115 Uup, 117 Uus, 118 Uuo have not been named yet).
  • Elements 93 and higher are man made (most of them by Dr. Glenn Seaborg and his team at U. California @ Berkeley)
    • 119 (Uue) and 120 (Ubn) are currently being worked on but have not been synthesized as of yet.
  • Do any still “undiscovered” elements exist anywhere in the Universe?
substances compounds
Substances: Compounds
  • Compounds are pure substances too. There are literally millions of chemical compounds. Some common compounds are:
    • Salt (sodium chloride or NaCl)
    • Sugar (sucrose or C12H22O11)
    • Baking Soda (sodium bicarbonate or NaHCO3)
    • Sand (silicon dioxide or SiO2)
    • Rubbing Alcohol (isopropanol or C3H7OH)
    • Carbon dioxide (CO2)
    • Ammonia (NH3)
    • Methane (CH4)
distinguishing between elements compounds and mixtures
Distinguishing between: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures?
  • How can you tell if it’s an element or a compound or mixture?
    • An element cannot be broken down into anything simpler.
    • A compound can be separated into smaller elements.
      • But, you must use a chemical reaction to break down a compound, because the elements in a compound are bonded together.
    • A mixture can be separated using physical separation techniques.
  • Check out the cool flowchart at the bottom of page 44.
ionic compounds vs molecular compounds
Ionic Compounds vsMolecular Compounds
  • There are 2 types of compounds
    • Ionic compounds have ionic bonds and are composed of positive and negative ions.
      • Ions are formed when atoms lose or gain electrons.
    • Molecular compounds have covalent bonds.
      • Electrons are shared between atoms. There are no ions or charges.
    • We will study this more in Chapter 9.
chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions
  • Reactants  Products
    • You need to start with 1 or more reactants and You will produce 1 or more products
      • How many you need and how much you produce is characteristic of the specific reaction.
    • We will study 5 major types of reactions starting in Chapter 11.
    • Chemical reactions are PERMANENT and NOT reversible.
that s chemistry
That’s Chemistry…
  • That’s really all chemistry is…
    • Atoms either take electrons from other atoms or
    • Atoms lose electrons to other atoms or
    • Atoms share electrons with other atoms
  • Bonds are broken during that process and new bonds are formed.
  • Chemistry is the interaction of my electrons with your electrons to form a bond. Electrons are involved, not the protons or neutrons.
should you memorize the periodic table
Should you Memorize the Periodic Table?
  • No!
    • But learn the names of the symbols from 1-36 (OMG, vocabulary!)
    • Some names are derived from Latin (Na and Au) or Greek (Hg), German (W) and even mythology (Th). Some are even named after real people (Cm and Es and Sg among others) or real places (like Y or Ga or Ge) or planets (U, Np, Pu…and don’t start with me about Pluto not being a real planet!). Each element has a definite story!
    • The Element Song:
  • We will study the Periodic Table in greater detail beginning in Unit 2.
    • Period = horizontal rows. There are 7 periods.
    • Groups = vertical columns (also called “families”). There are 18 groups.
remember study hard
Remember: STUDY HARD!!

20-30 minutes every night! Have you started yet?

You should plan on studying hours for EVERY chemistry test.

But it doesn’t all have to be done the night before.

Students who just study 10 minutes before a test usually don’t pass my test. Just saying!

homework 1 2 6 due tomorrow
Homework1,2,6 due tomorrow!!
  • Answer the 6 questions on pg 20&21 about safety.
  • Pg 28-30, #55, 60, 67, 73, 75
  • You are also responsible for any vocab you don’t already know on pg 27. Spelling does count.
  • More vocab on pg 54. If you don’t know those words, make sure you learn them before the test (or maybe start putting some into your notes).
  • There will be a vocab quiz this week!!
  • Pg 55-58, #43, 57, 63-66, 85, 86