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Current US Surveillance Legislation

Current US Surveillance Legislation

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Current US Surveillance Legislation

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  1. Current US Surveillance Legislation Lawrence Kerr December 5, 2013

  2. Agenda • Overview • Background • Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) • USA PARTRIOT Act • Proposed changes • FISA Improvements Act • Intelligence Oversight and Surveillance Reform Act • Surveillance Transparency Act • USA FREEDOM Act • Questions

  3. FISA • Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act • Ted Kennedy (D-MA) • Established Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) • Oversee surveillance requests • Ex parte • Hears only from DOJ

  4. FISA • Section 702 • Acquisitions allowed for up to one year • Joint authorization by AG, DNI • Collected information must be: • Not on subject in US • Not intentionally target US person • Not target foreign person with purpose of obtaining information on US person • “reverse targeting”

  5. USA PATRIOT Act • Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 • Introduced by Representative Jim Sensenbrenner (R-WI)

  6. USA PATRIOT Act • Title II • Section 214 • Used in justifying email surveillance • Non-US citizens, those suspected of terrorism involvement, or clandestine intelligence activities • Section 215 – “Library records” • Expands what records regarding communications can be collected • “tangible things” including books, papers, records

  7. USA PATRIOT Act • Title V • Section 505 – National Security Letters • NSL originally used as means of FBI obtaining financial information about a subject • Extended to include electronic communications • Extended use to Bureau Office Special Agent in charge, as opposed to Director or Deputy Assistant Director of FBI • Includes gag order

  8. National Security Letters

  9. Concerns • Recent revelations on surveillance • NSA Bulk collection of phone records • CIA • Paying AT&T for call data • Global money transfer data

  10. Surveillance Transparency Act • Introduced August 1, 2013 by Senator Al Franken (D-MN) • Concerns about • PATRIOT Act Sections 214, 215 • FISA 702 • Provides for mandatory government reporting on surveillance activities

  11. Surveillance Transparency Act • Number of FISA orders issued • How many individuals’ information collected • How many US persons’ information collected is each of the categories • Electronic communications content and metadata • Telephone communications content and metadata • Subscriber records • How much of this data on US persons was reviewed

  12. Surveillance Transparency Act • Query information • Number of queries run on collected data • Number of queries derived from information on US persons • Does not deal with the limiting of surveillance powers

  13. Intelligence Oversight and Surveillance Reform Act • Introduced September 25, 2013 by Senators Ron Wyden (D-OR), Mark Udall (D-CO), Richard Blumenthal (D-CT), and Rand Paul (R-KY) • Reform surveillance law • Reform surveillance court • Transparency

  14. Intelligence Oversight and Surveillance Reform Act • Reform surveillance law • FISA Title V – prohibit bulk collection of phone records, but still allow collection of information on specific suspected individuals • FISA Title IV – prohibit bulk collection of communications records (email) • NSLs – prohibit use for bulk collection, increase reporting about usage

  15. Intelligence Oversight and Surveillance Reform Act • Section 702 • "back door searches" loophole • warrantless searches • In non-terrorism cases, prohibit collection of communications about the target • Strengthen the prohibition against “reverse targeting • Stronger limits on the use of unlawfully collected information

  16. Intelligence Oversight and Surveillance Reform Act • Reform the surveillance court • Constitutional Advocate to argue against the government when the FISC is considering significant legal and constitutional questions • Declassification of Significant FISC Opinions • Permitting Constitutional Challenges

  17. Intelligence Oversight and Surveillance Reform Act • Increase transparency • Disclosure by Private Companies of Their Cooperation with Government Surveillance • Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board Issuance of Subpoenas

  18. FISA Improvements Act • Introduced by Senator Diane Feinstein (D-CA) • Prohibits bulk collection of both records and content under Section 215, except under specific conditions and procedures • Criminal penalties for intentional unauthorized access to FISA collected data • Prohibit review of bulk records unless there exists “reasonable articulable suspicion” of involvement in terrorism • “reasonable articulable suspicion” determinations subject to FISC review

  19. FISA Improvements Act • FISC must impose limits on number of NSA employees who may query or authorize queries on metadata database • FISC must limit number of hops in response to query over bulk data • Five year limit on records retention, with Attorney General approval to query data past three years

  20. USA FREEDOM Act Uniting and Strengthening America by Fulfilling Rights and Ending Eavesdropping, Dragnet Collection, and Online Monitoring Act

  21. USA FREEDOM Act • Coauthored by Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT) and Representative Jim Sensenbrenner (R-WI) in November 2013 • End bulk collection • Reform FISC • Increase transparency • NSL reform

  22. USA FREEDOM Act • End bulk collection • Under section 215 • Reverse targeting prohibition • More aggressive filtering and discarding of accidentally acquired information on Americans

  23. USA FREEDOM Act • Reform FISC • Create Office of the Special Advocate to promote privacy concerns in closed proceedings • Reporting to ensure Congress is aware of court actions specifically, and intelligence community in general • PCLOB authority to issue subpoenas on matters of privacy and surveillance

  24. USA FREEDOM Act • Increase Transparency • AG publicly disclose all FISC decisions involving significant interpretations of the law • Service providers allowed to report • FISA orders and NSLs received • How many complied with • Number users/accounts in orders • Government report annually/semi-annually

  25. USA FREEDOM Act • NSL • Single standard for NSLs used for 215 collection to ensure another authority is not used to allow bulk collection • Ensure congressional review of NSL policy

  26. Questions?

  27. References • http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/15/us/cia-collecting-data-on-international-money-transfers-officials-say.html • http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/07/us/cia-is-said-to-pay-att-for-call-data.html?_r=0 • http://www.justice.gov/archive/ll/highlights.htm • http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/50/chapter-36 • http://www.franken.senate.gov/files/documents/130801TransparencySummary.pdf • http://www.wyden.senate.gov/download/intelligence-oversight-and-surveillance-reform-act • http://sensenbrenner.house.gov/legislation/theusafreedomact.htm • http://www.feinstein.senate.gov/public/index.cfm/press-releases?ID=3aa4ed70-e80b-4c2b-afd6-dc2e5bc75a7b • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XfRU48QxfQE&list=PL79B6C09B761988D9&index=1