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Abstraction. ADTs, Information Hiding and Encapsulation. ADT. ADT = Abstract Data Type A theoretical concept A set of (homogeneous) objects together with a set of operations on those objects NO mention of how the operations are implemented NO rules tell which operations are required

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ADTs, Information Hiding and Encapsulation

  • ADT = Abstract Data Type
    • A theoretical concept
    • A set of (homogeneous) objects together with a set of operations on those objects
    • NO mention of how the operations are implemented
    • NO rules tell which operations are required
      • A design decision
two faces of an adt
Two Faces of an ADT
  • From the outside, the user sees only a collection of operations that together define the behavior of the abstraction
  • On the other side, the programmer defining the abstraction sees the data variables that are used to maintain the state
stack adt
Stack ADT
  • The user sees only the description of the legal operations -- push and pop
  • The implementer knows the concrete data structure used to implement the abstraction
  • The concrete details are encapsulated within a more abstract framework
adts cont d
ADTs (cont’d)

To build an ADT, we must

  • Export the type definition
  • Make available a set of operations to manipulate instances of this type
  • Protect the data associated with the type so they can be operated on only by provided operations
  • Make multiple instances of the type
  • A mechanism to control complexity
    • Complexity due to interconnections between software components. I.e. the dependence of one portion of code on another section of code
  • The ability to encapsulate and isolate design and execution information
  • Using data abstraction is a methodology wherein information is consciously hidden in a small part of a program
  • First Abstraction Method
    • Allowed repeated tasks to be collected in one place and be reused
    • Gave possibility for information hiding
      • One programmer writes procedure(s)
      • Other programmers just need to know interface, not implementation

Function 1

Function N

In a procedural application, the characteristics (data) and behaviors (functions) may be in the same file


Function 2



Or may be in different files. There may be more than one set of data which use the same functions.



procedural stack example
Procedural Stack Example

main ( ){ STACK s1; STACK s2;

push (s1, 7); push (s1, 10); push (s2, 5); push (s2, pop(s1));

. ……….


void push (STACK s, int i){ // code for push}int pop (STACK s){ // code for pop}

what s the problem
What’s the Problem?
  • The data (STACK variables s1 and s2) are changeable by any line of code in main( )
  • The data is “public”
  • A collection of procedures and related data (a .C file) divided into two parts
    • Public part accessible outside the module
    • Private part accessible only within the module
modules cont d
Modules (cont’d)
  • Popularized by David Parnas
    • “[A module] must provide the intended user with all the information needed to use the module correctly, and with nothing more.”
    • “[A module] must provide the implementer with all the information needed to complete the module, and nothing more”.
  • Like the military “need to know” philosophy
modules cont d1
Modules (cont’d)
  • Solve some (not all) software development problems
  • Ex: Stack module
    • Stack data private
    • Stack routines public



main ( )








modular stack example
Modular Stack Example

main ( ){ push (7); push (12): push (15);

int x = pop ( );



static STACK s;

void push (int i){ // code for push}int pop ( void ){ // code for pop}

what s the problem1
What’s the Problem?

Question:How do you use more than one stack at a time?

Answer:You don’t

adts with oop
ADTs with OOP
  • OOP allows us to instantiate multiple instances of each object.
  • Each gets its own set of characteristics.
  • Conceptually, each gets its own set of behaviors
  • This was what procedures and modules couldn’t give us
  • The characteristics and behaviors are encapsulated in a single entity (an object).
  • That entity decides which characteristics and which behaviors are publicly available and which remain private.
  • Restricting the effects of change by putting a “wall of code” around the data
  • All access to the data is handle by procedures (functions, behaviors) that were put there to mediate access to the data
an oop application
An OOP Application

An OOP Application

An Object

Object Oriented Application




message passing
Message Passing
  • OOP extends the concept of ADT by adding the concept of message passing.
  • A program requests that an object perform a certain operation.
  • Objects can also request that other objects perform operations
a change of emphasis
A Change of Emphasis
  • Do you call the push routine with a stack and a data value OR
  • Do you ask a stack object to push a value onto itself
  • Allows different data types to share the same code
    • Reduced code size
    • Increased functionality


Land Vehicle

Water Vehicle

Air Vehicle

Car Bicycle Train Boat Submarine Plane Zeppelin

Commercial Military Private

procedural polymorphism
Procedural “Polymorphism”

Similar behavior for each representation

Procedural Application


oo polymorphism
OO Polymorphism

Similar behavior for each representation

OO Application

Single Interface