THE PLANTS. Eukaryotic Domains. Supergroup Plantae. Original photosynthetic symbionts Includes the red algae and the green plants All with somewhat simple walls. Green Plants. Chlorophylls a and b Walls of cellulose Store starch. Green Plants.
FIGURE 1. MAJOR CLADES OF THE GREEN PLANTS. This system reflects all of these changes in the taxonomy of the Viridiplantae with two subkingdoms: Chlorobionta and Streptobionta. See the Tree of Life Project and Palmer et al. (2004) for the consensus view of the molecular/ ultrastructural relationships between the higher taxa of the green plants.
CH = Chlorobiont Clade
ST = Streptobiont Clade
EM = Embryophytes
VP = Vascular Plants
SP = Seed Plants
Amborella, sister to all other living flowering plants
Wolffia in flower, floating plant
Rafflesia, largest flower, related to euphorbias and parasitic on vines of SE Asia
Amorphophallustitanum, largest unbranched inflorescence, an aroid.
Mosses growing in a Scotland bog, their success related to symbioses with fungi. Likely, this was true at the time of the earliest emergence. (David Beerling, University of Sheffield)
Exposure to UV light
Need for water storage and uptake
Need for photosynthate used for support
Restoration of Cooksonia from Silurian
Vascular tissue in stem of Rhynia, lower Devonian
These are from the lower Cretaceous, but flowering plant pollen has been found in strata 100 my earlier.
The Bee Orchid