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THE PLANTS. Eukaryotic Domains. Supergroup Plantae. Original photosynthetic symbionts Includes the red algae and the green plants All with somewhat simple walls. Green Plants. Chlorophylls a and b Walls of cellulose Store starch. Green Plants.

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supergroup plantae
SupergroupPlantae
  • Original photosynthetic symbionts
  • Includes the red algae and the green plants
  • All with somewhat simple walls
green plants
Green Plants
  • Chlorophylls a and b
  • Walls of cellulose
  • Store starch
green plants1
Green Plants

FIGURE 1. MAJOR CLADES OF THE GREEN PLANTS.  This system reflects all of these changes in the taxonomy of the Viridiplantae with two subkingdoms: Chlorobionta and Streptobionta.  See the Tree of Life Project and Palmer et al. (2004) for the consensus view of the molecular/ ultrastructural relationships between the higher taxa of the green plants.

CH = Chlorobiont Clade

ST = Streptobiont Clade

EM = Embryophytes

VP = Vascular Plants

SP = Seed Plants

tracheophytes
Tracheophytes
  • Plants have vascular tissue
    • Xylem
    • Phloem
  • Usually with stems, roots, and leaves
flowering plants
Flowering plants
  • Contain flowers
  • Fruit is derived from the ovulary of the flower
major types of flowering plants
Major Types of Flowering Plants
  • Primitive Dicots
  • Magnolias and their relatives
  • Monocots
  • Derived Dicots
primitive dicots
Primitive Dicots

Amborella, sister to all other living flowering plants

Water Lilies

magnolias and their relatives
Magnolias and their Relatives

Magnolia flower

Avacado

monocots
Monocots

Orchid

Wheat

flowers large and small
Flowers –large and small

Wolffia in flower, floating plant

Rafflesia, largest flower, related to euphorbias and parasitic on vines of SE Asia

Amorphophallustitanum, largest unbranched inflorescence, an aroid.

major events in plant evolution
Major Events in Plant Evolution
  • Appearance of land plants initially limited to mosses and relatives during Ordovician Period (~470-440 mya) based on fossil spores.
  • Plants restricted to lowlands and wet areas of temperate to tropical latitudes.

Mosses growing in a Scotland bog, their success related to symbioses with fungi. Likely, this was true at the time of the earliest emergence. (David Beerling, University of Sheffield)

life on land
Life on Land

Advantages

Disadvantages

Exposure to UV light

Need for water storage and uptake

Need for photosynthate used for support

  • Unfiltered light
  • Atmosphere larger reservoir of CO2
  • Initially, fewer predators?
major events in plant evolution1
Major Events in Plant Evolution
  • Vascular tissue
  • Shift to dominance of spore-producing portion of life cycle

Restoration of Cooksonia from Silurian

Vascular tissue in stem of Rhynia, lower Devonian

major events in plant evolution2
Major Events in Plant Evolution

Late Devonian

Pennsylvanian

major events in plant evolution6
Major Events in Plant Evolution

These are from the lower Cretaceous, but flowering plant pollen has been found in strata 100 my earlier.