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MARINE AND COASTAL ECOTOURISM DESTINATION TOWARDSSUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN TOURISM:PRACTICES AND CHALLENGES By Ir. Firmansyah Rahim, MM. Director General of Tourism Destination Development Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy Republic of Indonesia CEBU, 21-22 February 2014 WORLD ECOTOURISM CONFERENCE
Structure of Presentation 1 2 3 4
1 Marine and Coastal Ecotourism Destination
“Indonesia is the largest Archipelago and has the Fourthhighest population in the world” more than 17,100 islands 6000 of them uninhabited With a land area of 1.9millionkm2 and 3,1million km2of Sea 8 World Heritage Cultural Sites More than 300 diverse ethnics 742 languanges and dialects
Coral Triangle Coral Triangle Initiative (CTI) established in Indonesia, 2007 and follow by CTI Summit in Manado, 2009. Covering six countries: East Timor, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philipphines, Solomon Islands. Indonesia as a centre of Coral Triangle
Ecotourism Concept Sustainable Development Marine and Coastal Development Concept Marine Coastal Ecotourism Destination Concept Development Framework Climate Change Convension Culture Heritage Tourism Trend EXISTING MARINE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT Lack of understanding Economic Orientation Abundant amount of illegal action Not accomodating various interest EXPECTED MARINE TOURISM PROGRAMME Common Vision Nature oriented Minimum amount of illegal action Accomodate various interests Strategic Isues Marine attraction and resources utilization Strategic Values Socially accepted, Undiscriminative, People centered, Culturally appropriate, Environmentally sound I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Economic Recreation Education Ecology Social/culture
Stakeholders • CENTRAL GOVERNMENT • Facilitation • National Policy • Research and Development • Promotion • International cooperation • Pilot Project • TOURISTS • Financial donation • Sustainability support • campaign/promotion • RESEARCH CENTER • Product/Tourism Package Development • Services and quality Improvement • Market • Human Resources Improvement COMMUNITY COASTAL • RELATED SECTORS • Facilities • Infrastucture • Supporting facilities • MARINE & TOURISM INDUSTRY • Supporting facility • Tourism product and package diversification • Partnership development • Tourism package promotion SUB MARINE MARINE • COMMUNITY/NGO • assistance • Financial Access • Advocation • MANAGEMENT • Signage information • Activity facilitation • Preserving environment • Information center • Services and business cooperation • employment • Human resources training • LOCAL GOVERNMENT • Provide infrastructure • program and education facilitation • Local government policy • Research and development • promotion • Regional cooperation • Pilot Project
Development Strategy for Marine and Coastal Destination • Products based on uniqueness: (a) Sea Sports (Scuba Diving and Snorkling, Surfing Fishing), (b) Interaction with animals (Observe sea mammals and birds) (c) Sailing (Yachting, Sea Kayaking) and (d) Beach Tourism (Sunbathing, Enjoying the Scenery, and visit fishing villages). • The involvement of the local communities • Provide welfare benefits and environmental conservation • Upholding local wisdom and culture of marine • Development of locality-laden accessibility and ease of service quality • Promotion of responsible • Safety and comfort
Development Orientation Development Principles • Ecological, Regional marine environment can be part of the ecosystem surrounding environment. • Social and Cultural Rights, Region marine environment, the local community into a livelihood • Education, Values contained in the marine environment can serve as a medium of science education, conservation and preservation of natural environment maritime culture. • Commercial, natural environment and cultural diversity in the marine area provide value and economic benefits for local communities. • Recreation, The appeal of history, culture, technology, flora and fauna contained in the region and the surrounding marine and satisfying experience for visitors.
Diving • Indonesia is part of Coral Triangle with more than 500 species of corals. • Small islands is a dominant feature of the Coral Triangle and thousands of kilometers coastal areas that formed a huge potencies of marine tourism industry
Sailing Activities • Back to Down Under Rally, August – October (Annually) Passage Tarakan to Papua • Wonderful Sail2Indonesia, July – October (Annually) Passage Saumlaki to Batam • Darwin Ambon Race, July (Annually) Passage Darwin to Ambon • Sail Maluku, July – September (Annually) Passage Darwin to Ambon and Beyond • Sail Indonesia, July – October (Annually) Passage Kupang to Batam
2 Policy, Regulations, and Guidelines
Policy, Regulation, Guidelines, & Awards (1) POLICY AND REGULATION Law No.10/2009 on Tourism : It underlines the importance of sustainable tourism development for Indonesia • Green Job and Green Tourism : setting-up a national tripartite task force on green jobs, training/information program addressing the particular needs of the social partners (employers and trade unions), study on the environment-employment-economy linkages in Indonesia in response towards global climate change (started in 2011) • National Park and Protected Area : Of the 50 national parks, 6 are World Heritage Sites, 6 are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves and 3 are wetlands of international importance under the Ramsar convention. A total of 9 parks are largely marine. (started in 1980)
Policy, Regulation, Guidelines, & Awards (2) • Energy Efficiency and Low Carbon Destination : as part of the commitment an environmental-friendly approach with regards to a measurably neutral/zero carbon practices through adaptation and mitigation of climate change’s actionsfor all affectedcross-sectors in the destination • Responsible Tourism : providing more rewarding holiday experiences for our guests whilst enabling local communities to enjoy a better quality of life and conserving the natural environment. • Development of Park and Garden : in 2011 Indonesia started to design a guideline o how to develop park and garden as public recreational center • Green Homestay Development : started in 20 ... A guidelines on how to develop homestay as “micro small medium enterprises” • The Adoption of Green Hotel Standard : an environmentally friendly and adopts energy conservation measures relate to environmentally policy, green product, community empowerment, waste management, energy efficiency (started in 2007) • Regulation on Yacht : Presidential Decree no. 79/2011, onforeign yacht visit to Indonesia • Marine and Coastal Destinations Development Guidelines, Incorporation with Ministry Marine and Fishery Decree Nbr. 41/ 2000.
Policy, Regulation, Guidelines, & Awards (3) • Community Based Ecotourism: means of development whereby the social, environmental and economic needs of local communities are met through the offering of a tourism product, this program is actively developed in Komodo Island, KayanMentarang, Tanjung Putting, Sentarum Lake and Desa Pekraman (Bali). The objectives are: • To design and implement community-based eco tourism program that are consistent with local environment and culture; • To develop the capacity of villagers to critically analyze their conditions and to plan, act and evaluate the development (ecotourism) in their village; • To increase the villagers economic opportunities; • To preserve the environmental landscape and culture of the village; • To attract tourists to indigenously created and owned community-based ecotourism program • Eco-Guide Standard : in 2009 Indonesia set up the standard for ECOGUIDE in order to increase professionalism and quality of guide as well as the ecotourism • Conference on Sustainable Development in Tourism and the establishment of United Nations Sustainable Solutions Network (UN SDSN) Southeast Asia Hubs (started in 2013) and corporation with Global Sustainable Tourism Council (GSTC)
AWARD • Trihita Karana: is an initiative base on local philosophy about harmony which implement at the promoting sustainability development become tools to prevent the impact of tourism development for nature and culture in Bali (2000) • Citra PesonaWisata Award by Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy: is an award event held by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Republic of Indonesia in 2010to the tourism actors which have adopted the principles of sustainable tourism / green tourism • Earth Check: Indonesia is part of Earth Check a certified sustainable travel and tourism operators; with more than 1300 clients in over 70 countries. • Green Hotel Award: Green Hotel Award : Green Hotel Award is an appreciation and recognition of tourism stakeholders for adopting the ASEAN Green Hotel Standards into their services (started in 2007)
3 Best Practice and Lesson Learned
Local Government Initiative • Bali Green Province Initiated on 22 February 2010, Bali Green Province is the commitment of provincial government of Bali with district and city government; private sector, NGO, academics, and local community groups. It aims to achieve Bali as a clean, healthy, comfortable, beautiful, and sustainable destination. • BGP has developed 3 core programs, which are: Green Economy, Green Culture, and Bali Clean and Green
Local Goverment Initiative & NGO ACEH GREEN POLICY • Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Strategy as part of Aceh’s 2011 Operational Framework for REDD+ • Implementation Logging Moratorium: a policy to protect forests through a logging moratorium; it has saved about 500 thousand hectares of forest in active concessions (HPHs). Actually, the government of Aceh has saved from deforestation 464,110 cubic meters of timber/year • Aceh Spatial Plan : a sustainable development vision should be referred to in the planning and implementation of Aceh future development • Stakeholder Engagement: a forest protection system which involves communities through activities and establishment local institutions
Join Venture InitiativeMinistry of Tourism & Creative Economy, NGO, UNWTO Pangandaran • As a major tourism destination in West Java, Pangandaran faces both opportunities and threats from tourism. Continuous degradation of natural resources and cultural values are the cost it has to pay. • Supported by UNWTO and MTCE; local community of Pangandaran and local government of Ciamis have initiated tourism planning which combine environmental consideration and biodiversity conservation to tourism development. Local community groups have started adaptation initiatives by developing coral adoption tours for tourists. UNWTO and MTCE will continue its support until 2012 in developing mitigation measures in Energy Efficiency program; together with local hotel, tour operators, and business.
Join Venture Initiative Tree Adoption Program Green Radio and GedePangrangoNP • This adaptation initiative was started by Green Radio (an Indonesian radio station 89.2FM) that focuses on green issues together with GedePangrango National Park. • It resulted in the planting of 6.000 trees, the improvement of soil quality, and the provision of alternative production opportunities for local farmers. The Radio started its broadcasting on 28 February 2008. Currently it has about 200.000 listeners mainly made up of environmentally-concerned younger adults aged between 25 and 35. Coral Adoption Program Adopt a Tree Community Groups + Media + Government
Private Sector Initiative Environmentally-friendly Hotel At the moment they are quite many environmentally friendly hotels operating in Indonesia. It ranges from international chain hotels who have received international awards; local chain lodges, and also small lodges. Gran Melia Jakarta • Received GREEN GLOBE 21 Benchmarked Certificate (2004) under the new GREEN GLOBE 21 Certification program. It has a series of mitigation measures, covering its energy and water consumption, waste production and disposal; as well as implementing an integrated environmental and social policy. (pic: Gran Melia Hotel, Jakarta) Lodges Indonesia • Ecolodge - local chain hotel is deeply committed to the conservation of this rich biodiversity area. All five lodges try to implement modest mitigation measures; while also contributing to adaptation initiative by putting a percentage of revenue to developing and supporting a range of conservation projects in the surrounding areas. Similar initiatives are also tried by other lodges, i.e. Sambodja. (pic: Sarinbuana Ecolodge, Bali)
Tangkahan , North Sumatera • Tangkahan Tourism Foundation is a foundation founded by the local people in both the Namosialang and Seiserdang village, Langkat-North Sumatera. This foundation was formed in April 20, 2001,through the deliberation of the two villages at the Kuala Buluh public hall. • The mission of the Tangkahan Tourism Foundation are : • to plant and to manage the Tangkahan area and transforming the area to become an ecotourism destination, which has the biological diversity conservation value. • The local people are expected to take good advantage in optimizing the availability of local potential, for the best of themselves. • Activities: elephant riding, caving, forest trekking, river cruising,
Menjangan Jungle & Beach Resort • Menjangan Resort is a model nature based tourism development that is contributing to the restoration and protection of both forest and marine habitat in Bali Barat National Park. 3 conservation programs: Bali Starling Program (endemic bird), Endemic tree planting, Habitat Management Program • 3 Layer System is a sustainable, productive production system that combines agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry, enables continuous provision of firewood and livestock fodder even during the long dry season in West Bali, thus improving self-sufficiency of farmers • BinaCintaAlam Program is an environmental education program for pupils in local elementary schools - teach importance of conserving nature and how their behavior can affect the environment • BOKASHI COMPOSTING : Committed to ecological sustainability of the resort, to make use of 25 horse manure to produce an organic fertilizer • mix horse manure with other organic ingredients and ferment it with microorganism - allows fast fermentation and quick production of fertilizer.
4 Challenges for the Future (Linking to Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism)
The Importance of Ecotourism for Indonesia • to generate jobs and revenue, thus providing an incentive for preserving natural areas, • to raise public awareness of the many products and services provided by natural ecosystems and biological resources and respect for traditional knowledge and practices • Ecotourism has the potential to reconcile economic and environmental concerns and give a practical meaning to sustainable development Ecotourism in Indonesia defined as activities of responsible travelling in intact areas or in areas which are named according to the role of nature, the purpose of such activities being to enjoy natural beauty, involves education, understanding, and supports conservation, as well as increases the income of the local communities.
Marine and Coastal Destinations Linking to Sustainable Tourism Concept • Optimal usage of environmental resources • Respect Socio-cultural authenticity of host communities • Ensure viable, long term operations, providing socio-economic benefits to all stakeholders • Involvement/participation of all relevant stakeholders as well as strong political leadership • Constant monitoring on impacts • High level of tourist satisfaction
4 Principles of Sustainable Tourism Development Source : United Nations Evironment Programme on Tourism
Community Based Development for Marine and Coastal Destinations Positioning the community as an active role in the subject of the development of planning process Active role in the implementation and development of programs and management The role and position of the community in obtaining significant value of benefits (economic and socio-cultural)
Good Tourism Governance Model Through Destination Management Organization (DMO) and Destination Governance (DG) • Participatory • Enforcement And Compliance With Statutory Law • Transparency • Responsiveness • Orientation On Consensus (Forum) • Fair • Effective And Efficient • Accountability And Responsibility • Strategic Vision • Scale, Complexity Management, and Synergy • Public Private Partnership Good Tourism Governance • Tourism Quality Improvement • Visit • Length of Stay • Expenditure • Multiplier Effect Tourism Management (Destination Management) Managing and Adjusting Resource Access Included Managers Goverment Civil Society Bussines Academician/ University
Green Tourism and Ecotourism Linking to the Framework of Sustainable Tourism, Sustainable Tourism and Quality Tourism ”...Tourismwhichtakesintoaccounttheneedsoftheenvironment,localresidents,businesses,andvisitors;nowandinthefuture”. GreenTourism and EcotourismisSustainableTourism,ResponsibleTourism,QualityTourism environmentallyfriendlytourist,businesses,communities relatedtophysicalenvironment,socioculturalenvironment,economicalenvironment tourists’satisfaction,communities’ssatisfaction,environmentalsatisfaction
Challenges in Developing Marine and Coastal Destination • Integrated infrastructure development, management, and strategy of marketing for ecotourism destination • The Procedure of CAIT (Clearance Approval for Indonesian Territory) • The mechanism of CIQP (Customs, Immigration, Quarantine, Port) process, especially in length of stay (at least 6 months). • Domestic/national investors in developing ecosites, marine and coastal resources • Security image and management of marine resources. • Environmental concerns to shipping / shipping and oil spills , excessive utilization (over- exploitation). • The competence of human resources, knowledge management, networking and interpretation as well as value chain in tourism • Standards, Monitoring and Evaluation: Growth of “Green” Certification • Cluster development and promotion strategy for Southeast Asia and Asia Ecotourism Corridor • Agenda of poverty alleviation linking to concept of "Pro-poor tourism (PPT) development and Community Based Tourism”