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Bit of Administration …. Reading BSNV Chaps. 9 and 15 No Mathieu office hours today (Monday)! Additional observations for Lab 2, through April 5 Due April 7 in lecture or April 9 at Mathieu office 12-week exam in two weeks - April 12, 7:15 pm Review session, Sunday, April 11, 6:30 pm.

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bit of administration
Bit of Administration ….
  • Reading
    • BSNV Chaps. 9 and 15
  • No Mathieu office hours today (Monday)!
  • Additional observations for Lab 2, through April 5
    • Due April 7 in lecture or April 9 at Mathieu office
  • 12-week exam in two weeks - April 12, 7:15 pm
    • Review session, Sunday, April 11, 6:30 pm
the solar system
The Solar System
  • A Sense of Scale
the solar system4
The Solar System
  • A Sense of Scale
the solar system5
The Solar System
  • A Sense of Scale
the solar system7
The Solar System
  • Inventory
    • Sun 99.85% by mass
    • Planets 0.1 % by mass
    • Satellites and Rings
    • Asteroids
    • Comets
    • Meteroids
    • Dust
    • Solar Wind (ionized gas)
the solar system8
The Solar System
  • Inventory - “Sedna”
the solar system9
The Solar System
  • General Characteristics of Major Planets - Dynamical
    • Nearly circular orbits (Mercury and Mars most eccentric)
the solar system10
The Solar System
  • General Characteristics of Major Planets - Dynamical
    • Nearly circular orbits (Mercury and Mars most eccentric)
    • All orbit within 10o of Earth’s orbital plane
the solar system11
The Solar System
  • General Characteristics of Major Planets - Dynamical
    • Nearly circular orbits (Mercury and Mars most eccentric)
    • All orbit within 10o of Earth’s orbital plane
    • All revolve in the same direction
    • All rotate in the same direction (except Venus)
the solar system12
The Solar System
  • General Characteristics of Major Planets - Radius
the solar system13
The Solar System
  • General Characteristics of Major Planets - Age
    • Earth - Oldest rocks 3.9 billion yr (4.5 billion yr inferred)
    • Moon - 4.5 billion yr
    • Meteorites - 4.6 billion yr
    • Sun - 4.6 billion (theoretical)
    • Universe - 12 billion yr
the solar system14

Jupiter Saturn Uranus Nepture

Mercury Venus Earth Mars

Io Europa Ganymede Callisto

The Solar System
  • General Characteristics of Major Planets - Physical Properties

Terrestrial

Location Inner

Size Small (104 km)

Mass 0.1 - 1.0 MEarth

Density 5 gm cm-3

Appearance Rock with craters,

volcanos

Composition Heavy elements

7 Giant Satellites

Outer

Small (4000 km)

0.01 MEarth

2-3 gm cm-3

Rock, ice with craters,

volcanos

Heavy elements, ices

Jovian

Outer

Large (105 km)

15 - 300 MEarth

1 gm cm-3

Gaseous, with

rock cores

Hydrogen, helium

Notes:

Densities: Rock = 3 gm cm-3, Water = 1 gm cm-3

Composition of Sun and Universe by numbers of atoms:

94% H, 6% He, 2% all else

the formation of the solar system16
The Formation of the Solar System
  • Interstellar Clouds
    • By Mass
    • 73% Molecular Hydrogen
    • 25%Atomic Helium
    • 2% Dust (Metals)
slide17

ConcepTest!

The Taurus clouds are thought to be rather cold, with temperatures of perhaps 30 K. If you wanted to test this hypothesis by looking for light emitted by the Taurus clouds, in what wavelength would you want to observe?

A) X-ray

B) Ultraviolet

C) Optical

D) Infrared

E) Radio

the formation of the solar system18
The Formation of the Solar System
  • Dense Molecular Cores
  • (“Bok Globules”)
    • ≈ 1 Mo
    • ≈ 50,000 AU
    • ≈ 10 oK
the formation of the solar system21
The Formation of the Solar System
  • Protoplanetary Disks
    • ≈ 0.01 Mo
    • ≈ 100 AU
    • ≈ 3000 -> 10 oK
the formation of the solar system23
The Formation of the Solar System
  • Condensation Sequence
    • Condensation Temperature
      • Temperature at which Solid Gas

T > 50 oK T > 200 oK T > 1000 oK

Hydrogen (H)

Helium (He)

H20, Methane (CH4)

CO2, Ammonia (NH3)

Iron (Fe), Silicon (Si)

Metal Compounds

Gas Gas Gas

Ice Gas Gas

Rock Rock Gas

the formation of the solar system24
The Formation of the Solar System
  • Condensation Sequence

E

J

V

M

M

1000 K

200 K

Rock, Ice

Grains

Rock

Grains

No Grains

the formation of the solar system26

100 km

The Formation of the Solar System
  • Grain Collisions ==> Planetesimals (100 km)
  • random
the formation of the solar system27
The Formation of the Solar System
  • Planetesimal Accretion ==> Rocky Planets and Jovian Cores
  • gravity
the formation of the solar system28
The Formation of the Solar System
  • Gas Accumulation ==> H and He onto Jovian Cores
  • gravity

Protomoons

slide29

ConcepTest!

Most comets have orbits that take them well beyond Jupiter. You would expect their composition to be:

A) Rocks and heavy elements only

B) Rocks and ices only

C) Rocks, ices, and hydrogen and helium

the formation of the solar system31
The Formation of the Solar System
  • Dispersal of Hydrogen and Helium Gas
    • Solar Wind?
    • Jets?