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Review of AP Concepts. The Rhetorical Triangle. Speaker. PURPOSE. AUDIENCE. SUBJECT. The Rhetorical Triangle Quick Facts. Author : Who is the author? What do you know about the author? Is he/she trustworthy? Why? What else has he/she written on the subject? Audience :

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The Rhetorical Triangle

Speaker

PURPOSE

AUDIENCE

SUBJECT


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The Rhetorical TriangleQuick Facts

  • Author:

    • Who is the author?

    • What do you know about the author?

    • Is he/she trustworthy? Why?

    • What else has he/she written on the subject?

  • Audience:

    • Who is my audience? What do they mean to me?

    • What is their interest in the subject?

    • What do they know about the subject?

    • Audience:

      • How do they feel about the subject?

      • How does the writer expect them to respond to their topic?

  • Purpose:

    • Does the writer propose something?

    • Does the writer convey specific information?

    • Does the writer convince you of something?

    • Does the writer try to sell something?


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    P.I.G.S.A.C

    • Persona

    • The voice that tells the story. The author and the speaker are NOT necessarily the same. An author may choose to tell the story from any number of different points of view (character or persona).

      • 3 Components: Tone, Diction, Logic


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    P.I.G.S.A.C

    • TONE: The attitude or style of the author toward the subject matter. With the written work, it is tone that extends meaning beyond the literal.

    • Can be determined by examining the:

      • author’s diction (choice of words)

      • syntax (word order)

      • imagery(vivid descriptions - appeal to the senses).

    • Examples: Scared, anxious, excited, worried, sarcastic, foolish, smart, depressed


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    P.I.G.S.A.C

    • Author’s diction (choice of words)

    • Level of Formality

      • High or Formal:

        • Dignified, elevated, and often impersonal. Elaborate, or sophisticated vocabulary.

        • grammar, or syntax, that has been manipulated for an artistic effect—that is, the grammar calls attention to itself.


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    P.I.G.S.A.C

    • Author’s diction (choice of words)

    • Level of Formality

      • Middle or Neutral:

        • Follows rules of grammar and uses common, unexceptional vocabulary.

        • Grammar and vocabulary is meant to be transparent, easily understood.


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    P.I.G.S.A.C

    • Author’s diction (choice of words)

    • Level of Formality

      • Low or Informal:

        • Plain language of everyday use, including slang, jargon, vulgarity, and dialect.


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    P.I.G.S.A.C

    • Author’s diction (choice of words)

    • Connotation

      • Denotative:

        • Literal, Exact, Journalistic, Straightforward

      • Connotative:

        • Poetic, Lyrical, Figurative, Symbolic, Metaphoric, obscure, Sensuous, Grotesque


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    P.I.G.S.A.C

    • Imagery (vivid descriptions - appeal to the senses)

    • Is the use of language to represent objects, actions, feelings, thoughts, ideas, states of mind, and any sensory or extrasensory experience

    • Includes appeals to the visual, auditory, tactile, thermal (heat or cold), and kinesthetic senses

      Example: Her eyelashes were like a the legs of a black widow spider and brushed against my cheek as soft as a baby's breath.


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    P.I.G.S.A.C

    • Syntax(order and relation of sentences)

    • Long sentences:

      • Stressing a complex idea or concept?

      • Appealing to ethos?

      • Providing an explanation?


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    P.I.G.S.A.C

    • Syntax(order and relation of sentences)

    • Short sentences:

      • Stressing a key idea?

      • Sounding objective or factual?

      • convey anxiety or quicken the pace in contrast to longer, more complex ideas?


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    P.I.G.S.A.C

    • Syntax(order and relation of sentences)

    • Parallelism("on the sea, in the air, over the land...") :

      • Stressing the sheer number of things?

      • Creating rhythm, force, power?

      • Stirring emotion?


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    P.I.G.S.A.C

    • Syntax(order and relation of sentences)

    • Repetition

      • Stressing key idea?

      • Conveying an emotion?


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    P.I.G.S.A.C

    • Intention

    • The reasonbehind the text. The author/speaker’s GOALin the communication.

      • Consider the purpose of the text in order to examine the argument and its logic.

    • “What does the speaker want the audience to think or do as a result of reading this text?”


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    P.I.G.S.A.C

    Genre

    • Creative/Expressive

    • Descriptive

    • Expository/Informative

    • Narrative

      • Argumentative

      • Business

      • Comparison/Contrast

      • Literary Response

      • Technical


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    P.I.G.S.A.C

    Subject

    The general topic, content, and ideas contained in the text; the main idea.


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    P.I.G.S.A.C

    Audience

    The audience may be one person, a small group, or a large group; it may be a certain person or a certain people.


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    P.I.G.S.A.C

    Context

    • Context: the occasion, time, place it was written or spoken

    • Purpose: goal that the speaker or writer wants to achieve.


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    Appeals: How to Persuade

    • Ethos

    • Appeals to a sense of character, credibility, authority

      • The writer makes a good impression, is believable,

      • Ethos = expertise, knowledge experience, training,

      • sincerity


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    Appeals: How to Persuade

    Logos

    Appeals to reason and sense of logic

    • Solid facts

    • Sound argument

    • Acknowledge the counterargument

    • Makes a concession and refutation


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    Appeals: How to Persuade

    Pathos

    Appeals to emotion : TRIGGERS THE 5 SENSES

    • Figurative language

    • Personal Anecdote

    • First Person

    • Strong

    • Connotations


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    Modern Patterns of Development

    • Narration: Telling a story or recounting a series of events

    • Description: emphasizes the senses by painting a picture (activates the 5 senses)

    • Process Analysis: Explains how something works or how to do something

    • Exemplification: Facts, specific cases or instances; turns a general idea into a more concrete one.

    • Comparison and Contrast: Highlighting similarities and differences

    • Classification and Division: Sorting of ideas

    • Definition: Defining a term as the basis of an argument


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    Talking with the Text: Close Reading

    • Circle words you don’t know

    • [Identify main ideas]—thesis statements, topic sentences

    • Look for figures of speech or tropes

    • Look for imagery and details

    • Use the margins or post-it notes to ask questions or comment on what you have read


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    Dialectical Journaling

    NOTE TAKING PARA. NOTE MAKING

    1

    Note taking on the left sections you think are important

    Note making on the right

    your notes


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    Dialectical Journal --- double entry notebook

    Graphic Organizer

    QUOTATION PARA. PARAPHRASE

    SUMMARIZE

    1

    Quotationon the left sections you think are important

    Paraphraseon the right

    (in your own words)


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    Paraphrasethe passage (summarize in your own words). Do this by paragraph, if the passage is organized into paragraphs. Be sure that your paraphrase includes all the important points in the passage.Dialectical Journal --- double entry notebook

    Red Sheet (for Multiple Choice)

    QUOTATION PARA. PARAPHRASE

    SUMMARIZE

    1

    Quotationon the left sections you think are important

    Paraphraseon the right

    (in your own words)


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    Red Sheet (for Multiple Choice)

    Explain the passage's central argument

    • What is the author claiming?

      • There can be more than one

      • Can either be paraphrases or direct quotations from the text


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    Red Sheet (for Multiple Choice)

    Write down and then explain two assertions that support the central argument.

    • How is the author supporting or proving his/her point or central argument

      • There can be more than one

      • Can either be paraphrases or direct quotations from the text


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    Red Sheet (for Multiple Choice)

    Look up any words you don't know the definition of. Write these words and their definitions.


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    Red Sheet (for Multiple Choice)

    Write down two examples of rhetorical strategies (one of the 3 appeals, any example of diction (word choice) or syntax (sentence structure), identify what kind of strategy it is (label the example) and then explain the effect of the rhetorical strategy.

    P.I.G.S.A.C


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