Highly Engaged Classroom. Chapter 1 RESEARCH AND THEORY. Student Engagement. ---has long been recognized as the CORE of effective schooling.
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RESEARCH AND THEORY
We will discuss four ways to trigger and maintain situational interest:
Game-like activities help trigger situational interest and provide a foundation for maintained situational interest because they tap into the psychological principal of clozentropy.
Incongruity theories also support the utility of game-like activities to generate situational interest.
Inconsequential competition is an aspect of games that can help trigger and maintain situational interest.
Another way to trigger and maintain situational interest is through controversy.
A third activity that triggers and helps maintain situational interest in the use of unusual information.
It makes intuitive sense that when a student is answering a question, his or her working memory is fully attentive to the task at hand.
“Is this important?” is the third emblematic question that affects engagement.
Hierarchy of goals:
-lower level goals address basic subsistence needs
-short-term goals such as scheduling a date
-long-term goals such as making a varsity team
When a student is operating on higher levels of the hierarchy, he or she is more engaged.
Human goals are housed in the self-system. The self-system is a part of permanent memory.
Self-system contains goals that individuals bring to every situation.
Self-system can be viewed as the architect of human motivation.
In some manner, people view every situation in their lives through the filter of their goals. Every student enters class every day with goals that drive his or her behavior.
One clear message from the research and theory on the goal-directed nature of human behavior is that students are more likely to engage in school goals that are linked to their personal goals.
The challenge comes when students do not initially perceive school goals are related to any of their personal goals. Research points to choice as a possible remedy for this situation.
Research has shown that providing students of all ages with choice typically increased intrinsic motivation.
Classroom tasks that offer choice must be robust enough to allow students to make direct connections to their personal goals.
-focus on sustained examination of a few topics rather than superficial coverage of many.
-encourage discourse that is characterized by substantive coherence and continuity.
-challenge students to clarify or justify their assertions.
-generate original and innovative ideas.
When students are challenged they are more likely to see what they are learning as being important, and they are more likely to see learning itself as important and influential in their lives.
The answer to the final emblematic question, “Can I do this?,” also affects engagement.
Self-efficacy refers to the perceived capabilities for learning or performing actions at designated levels.
Two ways students foster their self-efficacy:
Efficacy is determined in part by students’ sense of their possible selves.
Possible selves are cognitive representations of an individual’s future. The extent to which students have developed clear conceptions of who they might become in the future enables them to develop skills and gather resources that add up to a sense of self-efficacy.
Self-theories are at the core of student motivation, particularly in the face of challenging tasks.
There are two types of self-theories
One of the most exciting aspects of self-theories is that they can shift.
The students are asking four questions:
-How do I feel?
-Am I interested?
-Is this important?
-Can I do this?
The teacher is always asking and answering two questions about the students:
-Do I have their attention?
-Are they engaged?