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Bye laws. Building and Town Planning. Introduction. The building byelaws are defined as the standards & specifications designed to grant minimum safeguards to the workers during construction, to the health & comfort of the users & to provide enough safety to the public in general.

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Bye laws

Bye laws

Building and Town Planning


  • The building byelaws are defined as the standards & specifications designed to grant minimum safeguards to the workers during construction, to the health & comfort of the users & to provide enough safety to the public in general.

  • The regulation set out the basic requirements to be observed in the of design and construction of buildings.

  • They are applied to new building and also to extensions, material alterations, and certain changes of use of existing buildings.

  • A building byelaw is a local law framed by a subordinate authority.


  • It channelizes to achieve the concepts & policies outlined in the Master plans of the city, in order to give a particular ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER to the city.

  • Bye-laws are an integral part of many organization yet they are often misunderstood because there are different policies and procedure concerning g how bye-laws can be established or govern an organization.

  • Every local authority has 2 types of areas under its jurisdiction:








What is building code
What is building code?

  • A building code is a document containing standardized requirement for the design & construction of most types of building.

  • Codes regulate building construction & building use in order to protect the health, safety & welfare of the occupant.

  • Codes express all aspects of construction including structural integrity, fire resistance, safe exists, lighting, electrical, energy conservation, plumbing, sanitary facilities, ventilation, seismic design & correct use of construction materials.

What is building code1
What is building code?

  • Building codes classify standard by use & apply different standards to each classification. For example, schools & office buildings are in separate occupancy category with different performance requirement.

  • The National Building Code is a single document in which, like a network, the information contained in various Indian Standards is woven into a pattern of continuity and cogency with the interdependent requirement of sections carefully analyzed and fitted in to make the whole document a cogent continuous volume.

  • A continuous thread of preplanning is woven which, in itself, contributes considerably to the economies in construction particularly in building and plumbing services.

What is a national building code
What is a national building code?

  • It is a single document in which like a network the information contained in various INDIAN STANDARDS is woven into a pattern of continuity with interdependent requirements of sections carefully analyzed & fitted into to make the whole document, a continuous one.

  • A continuous thread of pre-planning is woven which in itself contributed in the economies in construction particularly in building & economic services.

What is a national building code1
What is a national building code?

  • The purpose of all these building codes is to ensure public safety, health & welfare as affected by building construction. This purpose includes:





Objectives of bye laws
Objectives of BYE-LAWS

  • To make it easier to pre-plan the building activities.

  • Gives guidelines to the designing Architect or engineer.

  • Prevents haphazard development without any resemblance to the development of the area as a whole.

  • gives safety (to humans who work & most importantly live in the buildings) against fire, noise, health hazard, structural failure (may be due to natural calamity).

Need importance of bye laws

  • The basis for modern bye-laws, requirements look mysterious always to layman & even to many officials & most of them are based on natural scientific laws, known properties of building materials & inherent hazards of users.

  • The need for bye-laws becomes more important from the point of view in INDIA. The construction activity both in public & private sector in terms of building for industrial, commercial & residential & administrative user amount to 50% of outlay of any 5 year plan.

Need importance of bye laws1

  • With this certain projects can be delayed over a period of time to get completed. Eg. ST. MARK’S PIAZZA, hence it would loose their identity in terms of MASS & SPACE RELATIONSHIP.

  • If we talk about the cities, if we loose control over the construction activity then the problems like

  • Visual disorder, traffic becomes uncontrollable, uncomfortable living, environmental problems etc.

Need importance of bye laws2

  • In the absence of suitable bye-laws & machinery to enforce them, the poor people will be left at the mercy of well to do people.

  • Building by laws are made to ensure orderly development of localities in urban areas so that every houses is assured of good ventilation and no building affects the lighting and ventilation of neighbors.

  • There has to be laws or regulations binding on the prospective builders, if not, the building constructed will be:

    • 1. Un-scientific

    • 2. Unhealthy

Need importance of bye laws3

  • Even a jungle in a planned way will be aesthetically satisfying the needs of the occupants and to enable them to stay or live in a healthy environment.

  • The buildings should not be constructed merely with profit motive without paying any attention to the health and comfort of the in-habitants.

  • The buildings must get sufficient sunshine, air and ventilation.

  • Open spaces should be well planned.

Need importance of bye laws4

  • The buildings should create better environment.

  • The buildings should be located in healthy surroundings and should have an aesthetic appearance.

  • But to achieve all this, there has to be a suitable regulations or what are know as model building bye-laws, enforced strictly by the authorities, and followed by the builders honestly and truthfully.

Need importance of bye laws5

  • These buildings Bye Laws Are Drawn Up By A Panel Experts In Various Branches Of The Building Industry Such As:

    • Town Planning

    • Architecture

    • Civil Engineering

    • Electrical Engineering

    • Air-conditioning

    • Fire-fighting and administration etc.

  • Theses building bye-laws when formulated are enforced on all buildings whether constructed by government, local bodies, private persons or agencies.

Important definitions in bye laws
Important Definitions in Bye laws


    • Apartment/Flats shall means residential buildings constructed in a detached or semi-detached manner being designed as Ground Floor plus more upper floors and constructed as separate dwelling unit with common staircase.

Important definitions in bye laws1
Important Definitions in Bye laws


    • Means all types of permanent building defined in (a) to (r) below, but structure of temporary nature like tents, hutment as well as shamianas erected for temporary purposes for ceremonial occasions, with the permission of the Competent Authority, shall not be considered to be "buildings".

Important definitions in bye laws2
Important Definitions in Bye laws

  • (a) "Assembly building" means a building or part thereof where groups of people congregate or gather for amusement, recreation, social, religious, patriotic, civil, travel and similar purposes.

  • "Assembly building" include buildings of drama and cinema theatres, city halls, town halls,

  • auditoria, exhibition halls, museums, "marriage hall”, “skating rings”, gymnasia, stadia,

  • restaurants, eating or boarding houses, place of worship, dance halls, clubs, gymkhanas, road, air, sea or other public transportation stations and recreation piers.

Important definitions in bye laws3
Important Definitions in Bye laws

  • (b) “Business building"

  • means any building or part thereof used for transaction of record therefor, offices, banks, all professional establishments, court houses classified as business buildings if their principal function is transaction of business and/or keeping of books and records.

Important definitions in bye laws4
Important Definitions in Bye laws

  • (c) "Detached building"

  • means a building with walls and roofs independent of any other building and with open spaces on all sides.

  • (d) ''Semi-Detached Building"

  • means a building having one or more side attached with wall and roof with other building.

Important definitions in bye laws5
Important Definitions in Bye laws

  • (e) "Educational building"

  • means a building exclusively used for a school or college, recognised by the appropriate Board or University, or any other Competent Authority involving assembly for instruction, education or recreation incidental to educational use, and including a building for such other uses incidental thereto such as a library or a research institution.

  • It shall also include quarters for essential staff required to reside in the premises, and a building used as a hostel captive to an educational institution whether situated in its campus or not.

Important definitions in bye laws6
Important Definitions in Bye laws

  • (f) "Hazardous building"

  • means a building or part thereof used for, -

  • (i) storage, handling, manufacture or processing of radio-active substances or of highly combustible or explosive materials or products which are liable to burn with extreme rapidity and/or producing poisonous fumes or explosive enabatuibs.

  • (ii) storage, handling, manufacture or processing of, which involves highly corrosive, toxic obnoxious alkalis, acids, or a other liquids, gases or chemicals producing flame, fumes, and explosive mixtures or which result in division of matter into fine particles and capable of spontaneous ignition.

Important definitions in bye laws7
Important Definitions in Bye laws

  • (g) “Industrial building"

  • means a building or part thereof wherein products or, material are fabricated, assembled or processed, such as assembly plants, laboratories, power plants, refineries, gas plants, mills dairies and factories.

Important definitions in bye laws8
Important Definitions in Bye laws

  • (h) "Institutional building”

  • means a building constructed by Government, Semi-Government organisations, public sector undertakings, registered Charitable Trusts for their public activities, such as education, medical, recreational and cultural , hostel for working women or men or for an auditorium or complex for cultural and allied activities or for an hospice, care of orphans, abandoned women, children and infants, convalescents, destitute or aged persons and for penal or correctional detention with restricted liberty of the inmates ordinarily providing sleeping accommodation, and includes dharamshalas, hospitals, sanatoria, custodian and penal institutions such as jails, prisons, mental hospitals, houses of correction, detention and reformatories building constructed for the promotion of Tourism such a, stared hotels, clubs, golf course, sport stadium and all activities of Tourist Unit as may be declared by Government from time to time.

Important definitions in bye laws9
Important Definitions in Bye laws

  • (i) "Mercantile building"

  • means a building or part thereof used as shops, stores or markets, for display and sale of wholesale or retail goods or merchandise, including office, storage and service facilities incidental thereto located in the same building.

  • (j) “Low rise building”

  • shall mean a building having height up to 16.50 mts. and having ground floor plus four floors. However hollow plinth up to 2.8 mts and parapet on terrace up to 1.5mts shall not be counted.

Important definitions in bye laws10
Important Definitions in Bye laws

  • (k) "High-rise building"

  • shall mean building other than mentioned in 2.9 (j) “Low Rise Building ” provided the maximum permissible height shall not exceed 40 mts.

  • (l) "Office building"

  • means a building or premises or part thereof whose sole or principal use is for an office or for office purposes or clerical work, "Office purposes”

  • includes the purpose of administration, clerical work, handling money, telephone, telegraph and computer operation; and clerical work" includes writing, book-keeping, sorting papers typing, filing, duplicating, punching cards or tapes, machines calculations, drawing of matter for publication and editorial preparation of matter of publication.

Important definitions in bye laws11
Important Definitions in Bye laws

  • (m)“Public Building”

  • means a building constructed by Government, Semi-Government organisations, public sector under-takings, registered Charitable Trust or such other organisations for their non-profitable public activities

  • (n) "Residential Building"

  • means a building in which sleeping accommodation is provided for normal residential purposes, with or without cooking or dining facilities, and includes one or more family dwellings, lodging or boarding houses, hostels, dormitories, apartment houses, flats and private garages of such buildings.

Important definitions in bye laws12
Important Definitions in Bye laws

  • (o) "Special Building" means

  • (i) a building solely used for the purpose of a drama or cinema theatre, motion picture a drive-in-theatre, an assembly hall or auditorium, town hall, lecture hall, an exhibition hall, theatre museum, stadium, community hall, marriage hall.

  • (ii) a hazardous building;

  • (iii) a building of a wholesale establishment;

  • (iv) centrally air-conditioned building which exceeds 15 mts. in height, in case where in building is constructed on stilt

Important definitions in bye laws13
Important Definitions in Bye laws

  • (p) "Storage Building"

  • means a building or part thereof used primarily for storage or shelter of goods, merchandise and includes a building used as a warehouse, cold storage freight depot, transit shed, store house, public garage, hanger, truck terminal grain elevator, barn and stable.

Important definitions in bye laws14
Important Definitions in Bye laws

  • (q) "Unsafe Building" means a building which,

  • (i) is structurally unsafe,

  • (ii) is insanitary,

  • (iii) is not provided with adequate means of egress,

  • (iv) constitutes a fire hazard,

  • (v) is dangerous to human life,

  • (vi) in relation to its existing use constitutes a hazard to safety or health or public welfare by reasons of inadequate maintenance, dilapidation or abandonment.

Important definitions in bye laws15
Important Definitions in Bye laws

  • (r) "Wholesale establishment"

  • means an establishment wholly or partly engaged in wholesale trade and, manufactures wholesale outlets, including related storage facilities, warehouses and establishments engaged in truck transport, including truck transport booking warehouses.

Important definitions in bye laws16
Important Definitions in Bye laws


    • Shall mean a land/plot or part of a land/plot or combination of more than one land/plot as approved by the Competent Authority. Provided however where an alignment has been fixed on any road by any Competent Authority, the building unit shall mean and refer to the land excluding the portion falling in alignment.

Important definitions in bye laws17
Important Definitions in Bye laws


  • Means the area covered by a building on all floors including cantilevered portion, if any, but except the areas excluded specifically under these Regulations.

Important definitions in bye laws18
Important Definitions in Bye laws


  • Shall mean a common open space exclusive of margins and approaches, at a height not more than ground level of the building unit. The owner shall have to give an undertaking that the common plot shall be for the common use of all the resident or occupants of the building unit, free of cost.

  • On sanction of the development permission, the common plot shall deem to have vested in the society/association of the residents/occupants. In case such society or Association is to be formed, the possession/custody of common plot shall remain with Competent Authority until such association/society is formed.

  • The common plot shall not be sold to any other person and it shall not be put to any other use except for the common use of the residents/occupants.

Important definitions in bye laws19
Important Definitions in Bye laws


    • Means a shelter consisting of residential accommodation for one family. Provided that the minimum accommodation in a dwelling unit shall be one room of minimum carpet area of 9 sq.mts. with a minimum side of 2.4 Mts. and a w.c.

Setbacks called as building line


    • means the line up to which the plinth of a building adjoining a street or an extension of a street or on a future street may lawfully extend and includes the lines prescribed, in any T.P. scheme and/or Development Plan.

  • Roads can be widened due to presence of setbacks.

  • Constructs one line parallel to axis of road, resulting in improvement of road.

  • Results in better condition of air, light & ventilation of building.

  • Reduces danger of fire.

Setbacks called as building line1





Main road

Setbacks called as building line2

If no setbacks then??

  • Intersections of roads increases without setbacks.

  • If no setbacks then invisibility along road or street.

  • Increases danger of accidents.

  • It will lack the parking spaces as a chaos has been prevailing.

  • Width of set back varies from 1mts to 1.50mts for congested areas & 4.50mts to 6mts for new underdeveloped areas

Setbacks called as building line3

  • The width of front set back shall be regulated as per provisions indicated in respect of residential, commercial and industrial buildings and also in accordance with the provisions of ground coverage and F .A.R. restrictions in respect of group housing, institutional and other public buildings.

  • The side set backs shall be optional. Where left it shall not be less than 2 metres or 1/6th of the height of the building whichever is more.

  • The width of the rear set back, if left at any point of building, it shall not be less than 3 metres or 1/5th of the height of the building whichever is more.


  • Shall mean space fully open to sky provided at the plot level from the edge of the building wherein built-up area shall not be permitted except specifically permitted projections under this regulation.

Margin for high rise building
Margin for high rise building

Floor space index f s i

  • Means quotient of the ratio of the combined gross floor area of the all floors including areas of all walls, except areas specifically exempted under these Regulations, to the total area of the plot/building unit.

  • an FSI of 2.0 would indicate that the total floor area of a building is two times the gross area of the plot on which it is constructed, as would be found in a multiple-story building.

Floor space index f s i1

  • The illustration shows a Floor Space Index (FSI) of 1.0.

  • This simply means that, if the area of the plot is 100 m2, then 100 m2 of gross floor area has been built on the plot.

  • The illustration shows a 4-story building covering 1/4 of the site, giving a FSI of 1.0.

  • Four floors of 25 m2 each are built on a site of 100 square meters.

Floor space index f s i2

  • Some ways to get to a FSI of 1.5:

  • Build a 2-story building on 75% of the site (2 x 0.75 = 1.5)

  • Build a 3-story building on 50% of the site (3 x 0.5 = 1.5)

  • Build a 4-story building on 37.5% of the site (4 x 0.375 = 1.5)

Floor space index f s i3

  • Example :

  • Calculate no of story if FSI is 1.5 and ground coverage is 25% for 100 plot size

  • 1.5 = Total built up area / 100

  • Total built up area = 100 * 1.5 =150

  • No of stories = (total built up area) / (ground coverage)

  • No of stories = 150 / 25 = 6 Stories

Minimum area of a building unit

  • Minimum area of a building unit shall be 100 Sq.Mts. with no side to be less than 9 mts.

  • Building unit with area of 100 Sq.Mts. may be allowed on roads upto to 9 mts. width and less.

  • Building unit with area more than 100 sq. mts. and upto 200 sq.mts. may be allowed on roads upto 12 mts. width.

Minimum area of a building unit1

  • The Building Unit having rectangular shape having the ratio between the length of the adjacent side shall not more than 2. However, this condition of ratio will not be applicable, if the smaller side of the Building Unit is 10.50 mts. or more in length.

  • Minimum area of a building unit for high rise building shall be 1500 sq.mts and it shall front on at least 18 mts. or more wide development Plan roads or Town Planning Scheme Roads and that the frontage of the plot on such roads shall not be less than 15 mts.

Minimum area of a building unit2

  • Minimum area of a Building Unit for primary school and High school shall be 1000.00 sq. mts.

  • Minimum area of Building Unit for Educational institute, community hall, marriage hall, Town hall,

  • Assembly hall (All types of hall), cinema, theatre shall be 2000.00 sq. mts.

Minimum area of a building unit3

  • Minimum area of a Building Unit for petrol pump without service station shall be 1000.00 sq. mts. and petrol pump with service station shall be 2000.00 sq. mts.

  • Minimum area of building unit for worship and Religious places shall be 500 sq.mts. and maximum built-up area shall not be more than 20% of the building unit area.

  • NOTE :- Above provisions are not applicable for Residential housing scheme for socially and Economically Backward class of people.


Elevators lifts

  • In case of Building having height more than 13.0 mts from ground level, lift shall be provided.

  • Lift shall be provided at the rate of one lift for 20 tenements of all the floors, or part thereof, for residential buildings and at the rate of one lift per 1000.00 sq.mts. or part thereof of built up area for non-residential buildings.

    The tenement and built-up area on ground floor and two upper floors shall be excluded in computing the above requirement.

Elevators lifts1

Lift shall be provided from ground floor and shall have minimum capacity of six persons. On the basis of detailed calculations based on the relevant provisions of National Building Code,thenumber of lifts can be varied.

  • Not withstanding anything contained in the Development Control Regulations in case of building with 21 meters or more in height, at least two lifts shall be provided.

Fire protections

  • In case of high rise buildings, the following provision shall be made for safety of buildings from fire;-

  • In addition to the requirement under Regulation for lift, at least one lift designed as fire-lift as defined in the National Building Code shall be installed.

  • At least one stair-case shall be provided as a fire staircase as defined in the National Building Code. Provided that this shall not be applicable if any two sides of a staircase are kept totally open to external open air space.

Fire protections1

  • Water Supply: Underground tank as specified in recommendation of expert committee on fire safety, as fire tank, shall be provided.

  • In high rise buildings, the internal fire hydrants shall be installed as provided in the National Building Code or as prescribed in the Indian Standard Code of practice for installation of internal fire hydrants in high rise buildings. The detailed plan showing the arrangement of pipe lines, booster pumps and water-tanks at various levels shall be submitted for approval of the concerned authority along with the plans and sections of the buildings.

Fire protections2

  • In case of high rise buildings, an external fire hydrant shall be provided within the confines of the site of the building and shall be connected with Municipal Water mains not less than 4" in diameter. In addition, fire hydrant shall be connected with Booster Pump from the static supply maintained on site.

  • In case of high rise buildings separate electric circuits for lift installation, lighting of passages, corridors and stairs and for internal fire hydrant system shall be provided.

  • All the requirements under the above regulations/ shall be clearly indicated on plans duly signed by the owner and the person who has prepared the plans. The Competent Authority may direct the owner to submit such further drawings as may be necessary, to clarify the implementation of the provisions of the above regulations.

Fire protections3

  • Every building having a height of more than 25 Mts. shall be provided with diesel generators which can be utilized in case of failure of the electricity.

  • The standard of National Building Code must be adopted fully in providing stair-case and alarm system.

  • There should be Provision of dry-powder, fire extinguisher to the extent of two on each floor with a capacity of 5 kgs. in all the high rise buildings.