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The Structure and Function in Living Things. Chapter Fifteen: The Diversity of Life. 15.1 Taxonomy and Systematics 15.2 Algae and Fungi. Investigation 15B. Bread Mold. What is mold and how does it grow on bread?. The first prokaryotic cells appeared about 3 billion years ago.

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chapter fifteen the diversity of life
Chapter Fifteen: The Diversity of Life
  • 15.1 Taxonomy and Systematics
  • 15.2 Algae and Fungi
investigation 15b
Investigation 15B

Bread Mold

  • What is mold and how does it grow on bread?
15 2 evolution of sexual reproduction
The first prokaryotic cells appeared about 3 billion years ago.

Prokaryotic cells reproduce asexually by splitting in two.

Asexual reproduction does not allow for genetic variation unless a mutation occurs.

15.2 Evolution of sexual reproduction
15 2 evolution of sexual reproduction1
About 1 billion years ago, the first eukaryotic cells appeared.

Eukaryotic cells evolved the ability to reproduce sexually.

Organisms that reproduce sexually produce more genetic variation among their offspring.

15.2 Evolution of sexual reproduction
15 2 protista
15.2 Protista
  • The Kingdom Protista, often called protists, contains many groups that evolved separately.
  • Scientists categorize the many groups under three main types.
15 2 algae
15.2 Algae
  • Algaeare photosynthetic protists that are plant-like in many ways.
  • Kelp is a good example of multicellular algae.
15 2 algae1
15.2 Algae
  • Some multicellular algae, such as Ulva, follow a pattern of reproduction called alternation of generations.
15 2 fungi
15.2 Fungi
  • Originally classified as plants, fungi(singular fungus) do not make their own food.
  • Yeast, mushrooms, molds, and are examples of organisms in the Kingdom Fungi.
15 2 fungi1
15.2 Fungi
  • Fungi do not eat their food as animals do.
  • Instead, they release digestive enzymes into their surroundings.
  • The enzymes break down organic material and the fungi absorb the nutrients directly into their cells.
15 2 fungi2
15.2 Fungi
  • Some fungi live in symbiotic relationships with algae, bacteria, or plants.
  • In those relationships, both the fungi and the other organism benefit.

Lichens are made of two

organisms—a fungus, and a green algae or cyanobacteria.

15 2 fungi3
15.2 Fungi
  • All fungi are made up of thread-like filaments called hyphae.
  • The cells that make up the hyphae sometimes contain two, three, or even more nuclei.
  • The hyphae form a cottony mass of threads called a mycelium.
ecology connection
Ecology Connection

Likeable Lichens

  • Lichens are important indicators of a healthy ecosystem.
  • Many lichens are sensitive to chemical pollutants.
activity
Activity

How to Make a Simple Cladogram

  • In this activity, you will use fruit to learn how to make a simple cladogram.