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Donald J. Leu New Literacies Research Lab University of Connecticut Institute of Education Sciences Research Conference - June 9, 2009. From The Report Of The RAND Reading Study Group To Online Reading Comprehension:  New Directions For Research On Reading Comprehension.

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Donald j leu new literacies research lab university of connecticut

Donald J. Leu

New Literacies Research Lab

University of Connecticut

Institute of Education Sciences Research Conference - June 9, 2009

From The Report Of The RAND Reading Study Group To Online Reading Comprehension:  New Directions For Research On Reading Comprehension

Portions of this material are based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Education under Award No. R305G050154. Opinions expressed herein are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the position of the U.S. Department of Education.


Important funding and support from
Important Funding and Support From:

  • Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education

  • Ray and Carole Neag

  • The Carnegie Corporation of New York

  • The National Science Foundation

  • North Central Educational Research Lab

  • PBS

  • The Annenberg Foundation

  • William and Flora Hewlett Foundation

  • Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

  • Australian Council of Educational Research

  • OECD

  • Schools and teachers around the world.


Homage and challenge
Homage and Challenge

“ . . .to completely analyze what we do when we read would almost be the acme of a psychologist’s achievements, for it would be to describe very many of the most intricate workings of the human mind . . . .”

(The Psychology of Reading

Edmond B. Huey, 1908, p. 6)

After


I selected summary reading for understanding an r d program in reading comprehension
I. Selected Summary: “Reading for Understanding: An R&D Program in Reading Comprehension”

  • “…the current knowledge base on reading comprehension…is sizeable but sketchy, unfocused, and inadequate as a basis for reform…” (p. xii)


An interactive and socially situated definition heuristic
An Interactive and Socially Situated Definition/Heuristic

Reading comprehension is “…the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing

meaning through interaction and involvement with written language. It consists of three elements:

the reader, the text, and the activity or

purpose for reading.”


The report identified priority research domains
The Report Identified “Priority Research Domains”

  • Instruction

    “Good instruction is the most powerful means of promoting the development of proficient comprehenders and preventing reading comprehension problems.”

  • Teacher Preparation

    “…teaching is so complex that the current teacher education programs cannot adequately prepare novice teachers to engage in practice that reflects the existing knowledge base about reading.”


Priority research domains
“Priority Research Domains”

  • Professional Development

    “…students’ reading achievement will not improve unless teachers use that knowledge to improve their instruction.”

  • Assessment

    “All of the research recommended by the RRSG depends on having better instruments for assessing reading comprehension.”


It defines essential elements for evaluating potential research projects
It Defines Essential Elements For Evaluating Potential Research Projects

  • Practical Knowledge

    “A potential project should be judged not only by its methodological rigor but also by its capacity to generate improvements in classroom practices...”

  • Multiple Methodologies:

    “…a range of quantitative and qualitative methodologies is essential to ensure rigor.”

  • Long-term and Cumulative Research Base:

    “High-quality research efforts should be long-term and cumulative.”


Other essential elements for our research agenda
Other Essential Elements for Our Research Agenda Research Projects

  • Links to Other Disciplines

    “…should create links across the now-distinct subfields and subgroups of research in this field.”

  • Collaboration

    ensures “…a healthy forum for quality control and the judicious use of resources.”

  • Community building

    “…contribute to the task of forming a community of researchers linked by their common intellectual focus.”


A prescient comment about the future
A Prescient Comment About The Future Research Projects

  • “… the Internet…requires readers to have novel literacy skills, and little is known about how to analyze or teach those skills.” (p. 4).

The new literacies of online reading comprehension


Donald j leu new literacies research lab university of connecticut
II. Research ProjectsThe Internet Is This Generation’s Defining Context For Reading Comprehension, Literacy, And Learning


Donald j leu new literacies research lab university of connecticut

Research Projects


The workplace has changed
The Workplace Has Changed Research Projects

  • Recent productivity gains around the world are, at least partially, due to Internet use in the workplace to share information, communicate, and solve problems (van Ark, Inklaar, & McGuckin, 2003; Friedman, 2005; Matteucci, O’Mahony, Robinson, & Zwick, 2005).

This generation’s defining technology for reading.


Our students have changed
Our Students Have Changed Research Projects

  • The Tipping Point Year: 2005

    Students aged 8-18 in the U.S. spent more time reading online per day than reading offline: 48 minutes per day vs. 43 minutes per day. (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005).

  • In Accra, Ghana:

    • 66% of 15-18 year olds report having gone online previously; (Borzekowski, Fobil, & Asante, 2006).

This generation’s defining technology for reading.


The world has changed nations prepare their citizens for work in an information economy
The World Has Changed: Nations Prepare Their Citizens for Work in an Information Economy

  • Finland:

    teachers receive five weeks of paid, release time professional development at integrating the Internet into the classroom (Svedlin, Personal Correspondence)

    • Japan:

      broadband in nearly every home that is 16 times faster than the broadband in US homes for $22 per month. (Bleha, 2005)

This generation’s defining technology for reading.


The world has changed nations prepare their citizens for work in an information economy1
The World Has Changed: Nations Prepare Their Citizens for Work in an Information Economy

  • OECD Assessment Initiatives in Online Reading Comprehension:

    2009 PISAInternational Assessment of Reading – Digital Literacies

    Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) – Problem Solving in Technologically Rich Environments

  • Mexico:

    e-Mexico, a policy designed to provide every citizen and every school with an Internet connection (Ludlow, 2006).


  • The u s not a single state assessment measures the ability to
    The U.S. ? Work in an Information EconomyNot a single state assessment measures the ability to...

    • …critically read online information to evaluate source reliability.

    • … read search engine results to select the best link for an information problem.

    • Nor, indeed, any aspect of reading online to solve information problems.

    This generation’s defining technology for reading.


    National assessment of educational progress naep
    National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Work in an Information Economy

    • NAEP decided to exclude online reading comprehension from the 2009 NAEP reading framework.

    This generation’s defining technology for reading.


    Iii what do we know about online reading comprehension
    III. Work in an Information EconomyWhat Do We Know About Online Reading Comprehension?

    • We have many more questions than answers.

    • It often appears to be a problem solving task.

    • Online readers construct the texts they read, through the links they follow.

    • Reading comprehension is somewhat different online. How it differs is not fully understood.


    Possible starting points to our understanding
    Possible Starting Points To Our Understanding Work in an Information Economy


    Donald j leu new literacies research lab university of connecticut

    A Preliminary Model of Online Reading Comprehension Work in an Information Economy(Castek, 2008; Coiro & Dobler, 2007; Coiro, 2007;Henry, 2007; Leu, Castek, Hartman, Coiro, Henry, Kulikowich, & Lyver, 2005 Leu; Kinzer, Coiro, & Cammack, 2004; Leu, Reinking, et. al, 2007)

    Online reading comprehension typically includes:

    • Reading to identify important questions;

    • Reading to locate information;

    • Reading to critically evaluate the information we find;

    • Reading to synthesize information to answer those questions;

    • Reading as we communicate with others.


    Donald j leu new literacies research lab university of connecticut

    Valid And Reliable Assessments of Online Reading Comprehension (ORCAs) (Castek, 2008; Coiro, 2007; Henry, 2007; Leu et al., 2005; Leu, Reinking, et. al, 2007).

    Issues: Practicality and Stability


    Online and offline reading comprehension may not be isomorphic
    Online and Offline Reading Comprehension May Not Be Isomorphic

    (r=0.19, n = 89, N.S.)

    Online Reading

    Comprehension =

    ORCA Blog

    Offline Reading =

    Connecticut

    Mastery Test (CMT)

    of Reading

    Comprehension

    Leu, D. Castek, J., Hartman, D., Coiro, J.,

    Henry, L., Kulikowich, J., Lyver, S. (2005).


    Additional evidence predicting online reading comprehension
    Additional Evidence: IsomorphicPredicting Online Reading Comprehension

    Offline Reading Comp.=

    CT State

    Reading Test

    Online Reading

    Comprehension =

    ORCA Quia

    Coiro, 2007

    The new literacies of online reading comprehension


    Challenged readers

    Isomorphic

    Challenged Readers

    • Some challenged readers read better online than high performing offline readers (Castek, et. al, in press; Coiro, 2007).

      Why? (case study evidence)

      • Read online at home each day.

      • Excellent locating skills

      • Shorter units of text lessened fluency issues

      • Online readers choose texts; greater engagement

      • Web pages are graphic images, a strong suit


    Donald j leu new literacies research lab university of connecticut
    We Have a Very Preliminary Set of the Skills And Strategies Used During Online Reading Comprehension

    • A taxonomy of online reading comprehension skills is emerging from an analysis of think-aloud, verbal protocols by skilled online readers (Leu, Reinking, et al., 2007).


    There may be a more limited contribution of prior knowledge during online reading
    There may be a more limited contribution of prior knowledge during online reading.

    • Online readers often develop required prior knowledge during “just in time” reading (Coiro, 2007).


    Donald j leu new literacies research lab university of connecticut
    Many Adolescents Are Not Proficient With Reading Online Information, Especially Locating And Critical Evaluation Skills.

    • Bennett, Maton, & Kervin, 2008

    • Leu, Reinking, et al., 2007

    • Many used a “dot com” strategy to locate information.

    • 100% of the top 50/1100 online readers thought “Save the Pacific Northwest Tree Octopus” was reliable or very reliable.


    Donald j leu new literacies research lab university of connecticut
    An Initial Instructional Model Shows Modest Effects With Improving Online Reading Comprehension In 1-1 Laptop Classrooms

    • Internet Reciprocal Teaching (Leu, Coiro, Castek, Hartman, Henry, & Reinking, 2008)

      • Three phases (Direct, Exchange, Online Collaborative Inquiry)

      • Problem based

      • Distributes Online Reading Comprehension Strategy Knowledge


    Donald j leu new literacies research lab university of connecticut
    Challenging Information Problems, within IRT, Seem to Generate Greater Acquisition of Online Reading Comprehension Strategies

    • Students appear to learn online reading comprehension skills best from other students within the context of more challenging activities (Castek, 2008).


    Iv what do we need to know about online reading comprehension
    IV. What Do We Need To Know Generate Greater Acquisition of Online Reading Comprehension Strategies About Online Reading Comprehension?

    • Online Reading Process Issues

    • Instructional Issues

    • Teacher Preparation

    • Professional Development

    • Assessment


    Process issues in online reading comprehension the acme of a psychologist s achievements
    Process Issues In Online Generate Greater Acquisition of Online Reading Comprehension StrategiesReading Comprehension“…the acme of a psychologist’s achievements…”

    • We need better theories, more precisely defined constructs, better methodologies, and a critical mass of researchers to study the issue.

    • What is the complete set of online reading comprehension skills and strategies? What are the limits of continuous change as we study this issue?

    • How does online communication play a role in online reading comprehension?


    Process issues in online reading comprehension the acme of a psychologist s achievements1
    Process Issues In Online Generate Greater Acquisition of Online Reading Comprehension StrategiesReading Comprehension“…the acme of a psychologist’s achievements…”

    • Which online reading comprehension skills best predict performance? Why?

    • Why are online and offline reading comprehension different?

      • The Technology Continuum Hypothesis

      • The Bottleneck Skill Hypothesis

        • Locating Skills of Online Reading Comprehension

        • Critical Evaluation Skills of Online Reading Comprehension

      • The Problem-based Reading Hypothesis


    Donald j leu new literacies research lab university of connecticut

    Instructional Issues Generate Greater Acquisition of Online Reading Comprehension Strategies“Good instruction is the most powerful means of promoting the development of proficient comprehenders and preventing reading comprehension problems.” (RRSG, 2002, p. xvii)

    • How do 1-1 Internet classrooms alter the terrain of possibilities for online reading comprehension instruction?

    • How do we take advantage of students’ online literacy practices outside of school to foster the development of online reading comprehension and learning skills within school?

    • How can we best adapt and evaluate effective instructional models from offline reading comprehension?


    Donald j leu new literacies research lab university of connecticut

    Teacher Preparation Issues Generate Greater Acquisition of Online Reading Comprehension Strategies“…teaching is so complex that the current teacher education programs cannot adequately prepare novice teachers to engage in practice that reflects the existing knowledge base about reading.” (RRSG, 2002, p. 9)

    • How do we support professors/instructors to include effective practices in online reading comprehension when some are not “newly literate” themselves?

    • Which online strategies can be most effective in rapidly disseminating effective instructional practices in online reading comprehension?


    Donald j leu new literacies research lab university of connecticut

    Professional Development Issues Generate Greater Acquisition of Online Reading Comprehension Strategies“…students’ reading achievement will not improve unless teachers use that knowledge to improve their instruction.”(RRSG, 2002, p. xviii)

    • Should we plan now for 1-1 Internet classrooms in our research on professional development?

    • What should we teach teachers?

      • Instructional models vs. skills and strategies?

      • Insights to foster continual learning in a changing context?

    • How should we best conduct PD?

      • Literacy coaches, peer coaches, online coaches, communities of learners?

    • Should we use test beds like Maine to rapidly evaluate scalable models of professional development in reading comprehension within 1-1 Internet classrooms?


    Donald j leu new literacies research lab university of connecticut

    Assessment Issues Generate Greater Acquisition of Online Reading Comprehension Strategies“All of the research recommended by the RRSG depends on having better instruments for assessing reading comprehension.” (RRSG, 2002, p. xix)

    • What are the most valid, reliable, and practical ways to assess online reading comprehension?

    • How can we develop more sensitive assessment instruments that take less time to administer?

    • How can assessments keep up with the deictic nature of our online reading contexts?


    Donald j leu new literacies research lab university of connecticut

    V. Two Important Policy Issues Generate Greater Acquisition of Online Reading Comprehension Strategies“How do national, state, and local policies and practices facilitate or impede the efforts of teachers to implement effective comprehension instruction?” (RRSG, 2002, p. 47)

    • Neglecting research into online reading comprehension perpetuates public policies that help the rich get richer and the poor get poorer.

      • The cruelest irony of No Child Left Behind may be that the students who most need to be prepared at school for an online age of information are precisely those who are being prepared the least.


    A second policy issue defining technology integration
    A Second Policy Issue: Generate Greater Acquisition of Online Reading Comprehension StrategiesDefining Technology Integration

    A literacy issue

    Technology standards are separated from subject area standards

    Online learning is separated from subject areas

    Specialists are responsible

    Online information and communication skills are assessed separately from subject area knowledge.

    A technology issue

    • Technology standards become integrated within subject area standards

    • Online learning is integrated into each subject area;

    • Every classroom teacher is responsible

    • Subject area assessments and online information skills are assessed together.



    Donald j leu new literacies research lab university of connecticut

    Donald J. Leu Not Easy

    New Literacies Research Lab

    University of Connecticut

    Institute of Education Sciences Research Conference - June 9, 2009

    From The Report Of The RAND Reading Study Group To Online Reading Comprehension:  New Directions For Research On Reading Comprehension

    Portions of this material are based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Education under Award No. R305G050154. Opinions expressed herein are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the position of the U.S. Department of Education.