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LEO 2011. Education points George Psacharopoulos gpsach@rcn.com. Illustrative statistics. To what class do they really relate? Middle? Upper? Lower?. Development Indicators, 2009 The World Bank. LAC, female 15-24 unemployment 21%

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Leo 2011

LEO 2011

Education points

George Psacharopoulos

gpsach@rcn.com


Illustrative statistics
Illustrative statistics

To what class do they really relate?

  • Middle?

  • Upper?

  • Lower?


Development indicators 2009 the world bank
Development Indicators, 2009The World Bank

  • LAC, female 15-24 unemployment 21%

  • LAC, population under $2/day 17%

    Gini:

  • Brazil .55

  • Chile .52

  • Ecuador .54


Leo 2011

LAC, Child labor, boys 7-14

  • Peru 26%

  • Bolivia 24%

    Primary school completion

  • Nicaragua, boys 70%



Question
Question

What is the analytical

usefulness of class

categorization in defining

policy to solve the above

problems???


Middle class focus
Middle class focus?

  • Descriptive rather than analytical

  • Elastic

  • Categorical rather than continuous

  • End up with real variables

  • Tautology rather than cause-effect

  • Circularity

  • Policy relevance?


Better focus on lower class
Better focus on lower class?

  • Design policies to upgrade to middle class

  • Invest in preschool – Highest social returns

  • (Lack of incidence studies)

  • Reallocate public education expenditure from the middle to the lower class

  • Selective cost recovery in higher education

  • Tuition fees for the rich cum subsidies for the poor

  • Expand student loans – Efficient, equitable


Education returns and the cycle
Education returns and the cycle

(%)

Returns to education

10

Economic growth

2010

1965


Leo 2012
LEO 2012+

Education!