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Introduction. Beginning-(~1500AD) da Vinci saw fossils in rks of Italian Apennines Concluded fossils once living marine organisms. Introduction. Steno- 1669-important contributor Principle of Original Horizontality Principle of Superposition Principle of Lateral Continuity.

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Introduction
Introduction

  • Beginning-(~1500AD) da Vinci saw fossils in rks of Italian Apennines

    • Concluded fossils once living marine organisms


Introduction1
Introduction

  • Steno- 1669-important contributor

    • Principle of Original Horizontality

    • Principle of Superposition

    • Principle of Lateral Continuity


Steno principles
Steno Principles

  • Lateral Continuity

  • www.cerritos.edu

Superposition

Original Horizontality


Ii development of sed strat as science
II. Development of Sed Strat as Science

  • Organization of sed rocks—Arduino (1714-15) divided rocks

    • Primary Mtns-metallic ores no fossils

    • Secondary Mtns-Stratified, lithified, fossiliferous, no fossils

    • Tertiary low Mtns- Fossiliferous, unconsolidated gravels, sands clay, volcanics

    • Alluvium- Sediment washed down from mtns


Ii development of sed strat as science1
II. Development of Sed Strat as Science

  • Geologic Cycle and Uniformitarianism

    • James Hutton (1727-1797)-Scottish Physician, farmer

      • Noted cyclicity to earth’s behavior

      • Uplift, erosion, transport, deposition

    • Established Principle of Uniformitarianism or Actualism

      • present key to past but rates change and catastrophes occur


Ii development of sed strat as science2
II. Development of Sed Strat as Science

  • Birth of Biostratigraphy & Stratigraphic Correlation

    • William Smith(1769-1839)-English surveyor, engineer

      • “father” of biostratigraphy

      • Canal builder noted relationship of fossils & rocks

      • Established law of faunal succession—fossils succeed each other in organized & recognizable fashion

      • Produced first geologic map


Birth of biostratigraphy stratigraphic correlation
Birth of Biostratigraphy & Stratigraphic Correlation

  • D’Orbigny (1842)-developed biologic stage for rock division

    • strata systematically follow each other with characteristic fossil assemblage

  • Oppel (1856)- developed biologic zone

    • Rocks deposited during existence of specific fossil

    • Zones based of first appearance of last appearance of organisms

    • Zones could be correlated


Ii development of sed strat as science3
II. Development of Sed Strat as Science

  • Petrographic microscope development

    • Sorby began microscopic study of rocks

    • Led to description and systematic study of rocks

  • Geologic Revolution-Seafloor Spreading and Plate Tectonics

    • 1950-1960s- Renaissance period

    • More funds, more geophysical exploration, Deep Sea Drilling Project

  • More oil exploration


Introduction

  • New Tools

    • Magnetic and Seismic Surveying

      • Identification of normal/reverse periods led to magnetostratigraphy

      • Seismic surveying could identify units and unconformities, packages of related rocks

    • Isotope stratigraphy

      • Use carbon and oxygen isotopes to correlate units


Magnetostratigraphy
Magnetostratigraphy

www.paleomag.net


Seismic stratigraphy
Seismic Stratigraphy

www-odp.tamu.edu


Ii development of sed strat as science4
II. Development of Sed Strat as Science

  • Sedimentary Rocks and Earth History

    • Paleoclimate

      • study of ancient climate


Ii development of sed strat as science5
II. Development of Sed Strat as Science

  • Sedimentary Rocks and Earth History

    • Paleogeography

      • reconstruction of area for given time in past

Wiley.com


Ii development of sed strat as science6
II. Development of Sed Strat as Science

  • Sedimentary Rocks and Earth History

    • Paleoecology & Evolution

      • studies relationships between ancient organisms & their environments

  • Life restoration of a group of giant azhdarchids, Quetzalcoatlus northropi, foraging on a Cretaceous fern prairie.

palaeoblog.blogspot.com


Ii development of sed strat as science7
II. Development of Sed Strat as Science

  • Sedimentary Rocks and Earth History

    • Paleoceanography & Ancient Atmosphere

      • Composition of ancient oceans and atmosphere using isotopes

Frank Corsetti