1. Why were many Africans able to win independence after WWII? • Atlantic Charter: supported “the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they will live” – US and Britain • Negritude Movement: pride in African culture • European powers were weakened after the war. • The Cold War helped nationalists and condemned imperialism – US and Soviet Union • European nations saw they must give up colonies - video
During the 1950s and 1960s, the history of most African countries was characterized by the achievement of political independence
And often found themselves caught in a battle between the two superpowers
British Colonies Were Some of the First to Seek Independence because • Britain felt hypocritical about colonialism. • War left her weak and unable to afford colonies. • A New African educated middle class began to emerge in the cities.
2. What nation was 1st to gain Independence? When? What is the significance? • Ghana • Independence Song • 1957 • It occurred through peaceful means • Slow transition • Centralization of power • raised the hopes because could lead to more independent nations in Africa
3. Who was Kwame Nkrumah? • Nationalist leader in Ghana • Educated abroad • Strikes and boycotts to protest British rule • 1st Prime Minister of Ghana • Supported Pan-Africanism Independence Speech and Questions Kwame’s Song
4. Purpose Pan-Africanism • Africa must be freed from colonial rule • Called for the unifying of all of Africa • Slogan “Africa for Africans”
5. Who was Jomo Kenyatta? • Nationalist leader in Kenya • Educated abroad • He demanded political & economic reforms from British • Massive uprisings: Mau Mau: African resistance army (Land and Freedom Army) • 1964 became the first president of Kenya • African Interactive Map
Ethnic Groups Map Kikuyu 22%: The Kikuyu homeland is around Mount Kenya. Land ownership is the most important social, political, religious, and economic factor. Kikuyu farmers produce most of the fresh produce that is consumed in Nairobi as well as coffee and tea for export. Luhya 14%: The Luyha's traditional homeland is around Kakamega in western Kenya. The Luyha suffer from high population density which effects their farming economy as cultivation occurs on plots that get smaller with each generation. They are important producers of sugar-cane. Luo 13%: The Luo live for the most part on the shores of Lake Victoria. They are fishermen and farmers. The Luo also played an important role during the independence struggle and many leading politicians have been Luo including OgingaOdinga, Tom Mboya, and Robert Ouko. Kalenjin 12%: The Kalenjin have become politically powerful. They live primarily in the Rift Valley Although mainly pastoralists, the Kalenjin have taken up some agriculture and also produce honey. , Kamba 11%: The Kamba homeland, which is east of Nairobi towards Tsavo national park Meru6%: The Meru live mainly on the northeast side of Mount Kenya. They are farmers and also produce tea, coffee, pyrethrum, maize, potatoes and miraa, a stimulant popular with Muslims.
6. Identify Mau Mau • Armed resistance groups in opposition of whites who refuse rights to blacks • Land and Freedom Army • Attacked white settlers • Guerrilla warfare • is a form of warfare • refers to conflicts by a small group of armed civilians • Military tactics: ambushes, sabotage, raids, surprise, and mobility
Kenyans Worry Election Will Bring Repeat Of Tribal Violence • NPR Report • Kenya's luxury housing boom
7. What nations experienced independence peacefully? • Nigeria • Tanzania • Uganda • Zambia • Malawi
Tanzania • Tanganyika region was placed under United Nations • Independent movements sprung up around this time, including the Tanganyika Africa National Union (TANU), headed by Julius Nyerere. • Support for TANU and the first elections were planned for Tanganyika. • December 9, 1961, Tanganyika became an independent republic and became known from then on as Tanzania.
8. Who was Julius Nyerere? What did he support? • 1st President of Tanzania • Educated abroad • Socialism for self-reliance • He argued one-party system could achieve democracy = reflected African tradition of consensus • African Interactive Map
The Congo General Joseph Mobutu Patrice Lumumba
Lumumba escaped but was captured by army forces. His captors later transferred him to Katanga, where he was assassinated on Jan. 17, 1961. Lumumba's death sparked worldwide demonstrations. The protesters said the West was meddling in Africa’s affairs. They believed that Western countries, especially Belgium and the United States, had sought Lumumba’s removal from power. Patrice Lumumba The Congo
For more than 25 years, Mobutu had complete power. Until 1990, Zaire had only one political party, which supported Mobutu's policies. That year, Mobutu announced governmental reforms under which opposition parties were allowed to form. In 1991, a national conference was held to rewrite the Constitution General Joseph Mobutu
9. The Congo • 1960: Independence from Belgium 14 million people – 200 separate groups • All had political and economic interest = civil war = disaster • Sign that Africans can’t handle independence • Patrice Lumumba: 1st Prime minister; foreign help turned to USSR; remove and murdered • Congo should control its own extensive mineral wealth • General Joseph Mobutu: military rule; Zaire; US support ArticleAfrican Interactive Map
Today the Congo IsExperiencing Punishing War! Michael Kamber for The New York Times About 5,000 people fleeing the ethnic warfare in and around Bunia, Congo, sought safety at a camp on Monday.
10. What were the goals of African Nationalist leaders? • To create a sense of unity among diverse groups in order to win independence • Self-government • Governments followed British Parliamentary System • To create stability, develop economy, education
Parliamentary vs. Presidential Parliamentary System Presidential System President is directly elected by the people Division of legislative and executive powers. Is both head of state and government Is not accountable to the legislature. Weaker party discipline (relative to parliamentary) • Prime Minister is not directly elected • No division of executive and legislative powers • Separate Head of state and head of government • Executive power (PM) is accountable to the legislature • Stronger Party Discipline
Other governments: • One-party rule • Military rule • General Joseph Mobutu: Congo renamed Zaire • Autocratic rule • ruling with absolute authority • Many postcolonial African governments took on this form of government
11. What are the goals of the Organization of African Unity? • 1963: help guide African nations to end colonial rule and self-government • Economic cooperation • Deal with regional problems • Work to settle disputes between countries
12. Explain the Colonial Legacy in Africa • Anti-colonialism sentiment • Created African desire to modernize and improve their standard of living • Colonial rulers did little to prepare Africans for independence • Weakened traditional leaders/limited experience • Artificial boundaries: include rival ethnic group and created minorities • Colonial rulers made material improvements • African Interactive Map