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Bioprospecting/biodiversity of Fijian Marine Invertebrates, Algae and Actinomycetes

Bioprospecting/biodiversity of Fijian Marine Invertebrates, Algae and Actinomycetes

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Bioprospecting/biodiversity of Fijian Marine Invertebrates, Algae and Actinomycetes

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  1. Bioprospecting/biodiversity of Fijian Marine Invertebrates, Algae and Actinomycetes Klaus-D. Feussner The Institute of Applied Sciences, USP

  2. Why? Bioprospecting • Symbioses are known to occur commonly between microorganisms and taxonomically diverse marine invertebrates, such as sponges, corals, mollusks, sea squirts and even some crustaceans. Some of these micro-organisms help their invertebrate hosts by providing a nutritional boost, while others produce bioactive chemicals that deter predators, competitors and pathogens of the host. • The symbiont is known or thought to produce chemistry that protects its host against predators, competitors or pathogens, or against environmental stresses such as exposure to high levels of solar UV radiation. Many of these chemicals may also be useful to people as new drugs, sunscreens and antifoulants. • The fact that these “simple” animals have to fight for living space on the reef made them produce chemicals that made them able to compete with “higher” animals. In addition they also produce chemicals to fight off “higher” animals, which often have medicinal value. • We try to access/identify these chemicals

  3. Brief History Collections are within Fiji 1995: Verata – Biodiversity Conservation Network (3y) 1998: Univ Utah (until 2008) 1999: Univ California Santa Cruz (3y) 2004: ICBG with GIT (ongoing, renewed 2014) Lau: 2007, 2008, 2011 2005: Univ Aberdeen

  4. Groups of Invertebrates/Bacteria • Sponges (porifera)  50% • Coelenterates (cnidaria)  20% • Ascidians (chordata)  10% • Algae  10% • Others: bryozoans, crinoids • Bacteria: Main target currently (culturability) are actinomycetes

  5. Collection Quick ID Photography Methanol/DCM extraction Freeze drying/ Speed vac Data storage; thorough ID with spicule analysis and/or DNA analysis Laboratory Procedure

  6. Bioactivity Screening • Brine shrimp test (cytotoxicity) LD50 • Sea Urchin test (inhibition of cell division), recently set up • Antibacterial tests (currently RRSA, WTSA, MRSA) • Antifungal tests (ARCA, WTCA) • In development process: antidengue test

  7. In cases of high activity: • Partitioning into polar, medium polar and non polar fractions • thin-layer/flash chromatography of active fraction(s) • HPLC to collect active component(s) • all steps are checked against the test procedure in which found active • NMR/LC-MS - structural identification

  8. Major current projects • Biodiversity conservation and Bioprospecting: Georgia Inst. Technology (Bioprospecting part has now moved to Solomons) • GEF

  9. Recent Master’s theses topics

  10. Published Highlights (1) • 22 new bromophycolides (from C. serratus) with 3 prov. patents on antimalarial activity • 8 new callophycoic acids (from C. serratus) • 2 new callophycols (from C. serratus) • 2 new neurymenolides (N. fraxinifolia) • 2 new peyssonoic acids (Peyssonnelia sp.) • 2 new naphthopyrones (C. parvicirrus)

  11. Published Highlights (2) • 2 new Naseseazins (Streptomyces sp.) • 2 new Fijiolides (Nocardiopsis sp.) • 3 currently unnamed new structures from Salinispora pacifica • New Aurantoside K from Melophlus from Cicia • 5 new species of Sarcophyton • 5 new species of Cribrochalina (yet to be published)

  12. ABS issues • New research partner: new agreement is needed signed by USP (VC) and Government (PS Fisheries). Currently not possible until new legislation is in place. • MoU: signed by overseas collaborator, PS Fisheries, Provincial Admin. (Roko Tui) and respective Qoliqoli owner after sevusevu and explanation of project • Annual reports to Director Fisheries and Rokos

  13. Research Collaboration Agreement (Articles) • 1. Purpose and management • 2. Definitions (eg.: active, chemical entity, confidential information, etc) • 3. Joint general activities in accordance with work plan • 3a. USP general activities • 3b. GIT general activities • 3c. SIO general activities • 4. Material transfer

  14. Research Collaboration Agreement (Articles ctd) • 5. Disclosure of inventions • 6. Ownership of intellectual property and applications for patents • 7. Licensing • 8. Confidentiality • 9. Publications • 10. Financial benefit sharing • 11. Records and reports • 12. Responsibility/non-respons.

  15. Research Collaboration Agreement (Articles ctd) • 13. Warranties • 14. Terms and conditions • 15. Understanding • 16. Notices • 17. Miscellaneous

  16. Outlook • Make use of molecular biotechnology • Target the gene(s) that are responsible for bioactivity, insert in vector • Due to limitations in culturing bacteria we will use e-DNA techniques to access all bacterial biodiversity