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Lecturer: Kalamullah Ramli. Fundamental of Computer Engineering Departement of Electrical Engineering University of Indonesia. Microcontroller: Introduction. Outline. What is Microcontroller Microprocessor vs Microcontroller Some Types of Microcontroller MCS51 Features

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Kalamullah Ramli

Fundamental of Computer Engineering

Departement of Electrical Engineering

University of Indonesia

Microcontroller: Introduction

  • What is Microcontroller
  • Microprocessor vs Microcontroller
  • Some Types of Microcontroller
  • MCS51 Features
  • AT89C51 Basic Features, Architecture Sample Application
what is microcontroller 1 7
What is Microcontroller? (1/7)
  • Microcontrollers are hidden inside a surprising number of products these days
  • Basically, any product or device that interacts with its user has a microcontroller buried inside
  • A microcontroller is a computer
  • All computers -- whether we are talking about a personal desktop computer or a large mainframe computer or a microcontroller -- have several things in common:
what is microcontroller 2 7
What is Microcontroller? (2/7)
  • All computers have a CPU (central processing unit) that executes programs
    • If you are sitting at a desktop computer right now reading this article, the CPU in that machine is executing a program that implements the power point that is displaying this page.
  • The CPU loads the program from somewhere. On your desktop machine, the browser program is loaded from the hard disk
  • The computer has some RAM (random-access memory) where it can store "variables"
  • The computer has some input and output devices so it can talk to people.
what is microcontroller 3 7
What is Microcontroller? (3/7)
  • The desktop computer we are using is a "general purpose computer“
    • It can run any of thousands of programs
  • Microcontrollers are "special purpose computers"
    • Microcontrollers do one thing well
  • There are a number of other common characteristics that define microcontrollers
  • If a computer matches a majority of these characteristics, then you can call it a "microcontroller":
    • Microcontrollers are "embedded" inside some other device (often a consumer product) so that they can control the features or actions of the product
what is microcontroller 4 7
What is Microcontroller? (4/7)
    • Another name for a microcontroller, therefore, is "embedded controller"
  • Microcontrollers are dedicated to one task and run one specific program
    • The program is stored in ROM (read-only memory) and generally does not change
  • Microcontrollers are often low-power devices.
    • A desktop computer is almost always plugged into a wall socket and might consume 50 watts of electricity
    • A battery-operated microcontroller might consume 50 milliwatts
what is microcontroller 5 7
What is Microcontroller? (5/7)
  • A microcontroller has a dedicated input device and often (but not always) has a small LED or LCD display for output
  • A microcontroller also takes input from the device it is controlling and controls the device by sending signals to different components in the device.
    • The microcontroller inside a TV takes input from the remote control and displays output on the TV screen
    • The controller controls the channel selector, the speaker system and certain adjustments on the picture tube electronics such as tint and brightness
what is microcontroller 6 7
What is Microcontroller? (6/7)
    • The engine controller in a car takes input from sensors such as the oxygen and knock sensors and controls things like fuel mix and spark plug timing
    • A microwave oven controller takes input from a keypad, displays output on an LCD display and controls a relay that turns the microwave generator on and off
  • A microcontroller is often small and low cost
    • The components are chosen to minimize size and to be as inexpensive as possible
what is microcontroller 7 7
What is Microcontroller? (7/7)
  • A microcontroller is often, but not always, ruggedized in some way
    • The microcontroller controlling a car's engine, for example, has to work in temperature extremes that a normal computer generally cannot handle
    • A car's microcontroller in Alaska has to work fine in -30 degree F (-34 C) weather, while the same microcontroller in Nevada might be operating at 120 degrees F (49 C)
    • On the other hand, a microcontroller embedded inside a VCR hasn't been ruggedized at all
microprocessor vs microcontroller
Microprocessor vs Microcontroller
  • General purpose Vs Dedicated Machine

A MicroProcessor is a general purpose machine while a MicroController is a dedicated machine

  • Embedded Systems

MicroProcessors need external RAM and ROM for a complete system; while most of the MicroControllers have built in RAM and ROMs ( Nowadays EEPROMs )

  • “No Direct Talk” Vs “Direct Talk” (Interface)

MicroProcessors cannot directly “talk” or interfaced to outside world; they need chips to do so e.g. 8255 for Parallel Communication and 8251 for Serial Communication (for Intel Systems). MicroController have dedicated ports for these interfaces e.g. Port 1 and RxD & TxD of 89C51

low end microcontroller components
Low-end Microcontroller Components
  • 20 bytes of RAM
  • 1000 bytes of ROM
  • 8 I/O Pins
some types of microcontroller
Some Types of Microcontroller
  • Z-80
    • Usually contained in a Digital Cell Phone
    • 8-bit Microprocessor
  • Motorolla
    • e.g., in Microwave Oven
  • Intel 8051
    • Good for dedicated purpose
  • Programmer Interface Controller (PIC) by Microchip
8051 features
8051 Features
  • 8051 was developed by Intel in the late 80’s
  • Newer versions can contain USB interfaces, Ethernet, Data Acquisition Systems, Flash, etc
  • "New high performance single chip microprocessors"
  • 8 bit
  • 12 MHz
  • Harvard Architecture
  • 4k ROM
  • 128 bytes RAM
  • 32 i/o lines
  • 2 counter/timers
  • 1 serial port
8051 features1
8051 Features
  • 1 serial port
  • bit manipulation instructions
  • hardware multiply & divide 4usec
  • 64k address space program
  • 64k address data
  • 12 clocks per instruction 1 MIPS
  • 8751 (Ceramic EPROM version $25.00)
  • Newer versions range from a few dollars (a small footprint chip), to over a hundred (complete with battery backup, clock, ram, software download, etc) dollars.
at89c51 basic features
AT89C51 Basic Features
  • 4 K Bytes ROM
  • 128 Bytes RAM
  • Four 8-bit I/O Ports
  • Two 16 Bit Timers
  • Serial Interface
  • 64 K External Code Memory Space
  • 64 K External Data Memory Space
  • Boolean processor (operates on single bits)
  • 210 Bit Addressable Locations
  • 4 Microseconds Multiply / Divide