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The Congress o f Vienna and European Revolutionary Movements 1821-1830. Europe in 1812. The Congress of Vienna (September 1, 1814 – June 9, 1815). Main Objectives. It’s job was to undo everything that Napoléon had done:

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The Congress

of Vienna and

European Revolutionary Movements 1821-1830

The Congress of Vienna(September 1, 1814 – June 9, 1815)

Main Objectives

  • It’s job was to undo everything that Napoléon had done:

    • Reduce France to its old boundaries  her frontiers were pushed back to 1790 level.

    • Restore as many of the old monarchies as possible that had lost their thrones during the Napoléonic era.

  • Supported the resolution: There is always an alternative to conflict.

Key Players at Vienna

Foreign Minister, Viscount Castlereagh (Br.)

Tsar Alexander I (Rus.)

The “Host”Prince Klemens von Metternich (Aus.)

King Frederick William III (Prus.)

Foreign Minister, Charles Maurice de Tallyrand (Fr.)

Key Principles Established at Vienna

  • Balance of Power: No state should be able to dominate Europe

  • Monarchical Legitimacy: Traditional Monarchies should be respected and protected against the threat of revolution.

  • Respect for Sovereignty: No state should intervene in the internal affairs of another state unless internal instability threatens other states

  • Compensation: compensation was granted to states, which had lost territories in the process of reshaping the map of Europe. The principle provided one more means for preserving the balance of power in Europe

Changes Made at Vienna

  • France was deprived of all territory conquered by Napoléon.

  • Russia was given most of Duchy of Warsaw (Poland). The rest of Poland remained partitoned between Russia, Austria, and Prussia

  • Italy was divided into 10 states , undoing most of Napoleon’s territorial changes

  • Prussia was given half of Saxony, parts of Poland, and other German territories.

  • A Germanic Confederation of 30+ states (including Prussia) was created from the previous 300, under Austrian rule. This was the only instance in which the principles of the Legitimacy and Sovereignty were not respected

  • Russia, Austria, and Prussia form the Holy Alliance . The purpose of the alliance is to prevent other revolutions from happening

An Evaluation of the Congress of Vienna

Congress of Vienna was criticized for ignoring the liberal & nationalist aspirations of so many peoples.

The leading statesmen at Vienna underestimated the new nationalism (or the principle of nationalities) and liberalism generated by the French Revolution.

Not until the unification of Germany in 1870-71 was the balance of power upset.

Not until World War I did Europe have another general war.

Challengesto the“Concert” System:The 1820s-1830 Revolutions

Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

Wallachia & Moldavia

Independence Movementsin the Balkans

Greek Independence

  • Tied to the “Eastern Question” : The Ottoman Empire was in decline. The problem was who will dominate the Balkans ion their place

  • HetairiaPhilike a secret society that inspired an uprising against the Turks in 1821.

  • 1828  Russia declared war on the Ottomans.

  • 1829  Treaty of Adrianople

  • 1830  Greece declared an independent nation [Treaty of London].

Greece on the Ruins of Missilonghi by Delacroix, 1827

The serbian and romanian uprisings
The Serbian and Romanian Uprisings

  • 1815-1817 the Serbs rise up against the ottomans led by MilosObrenovic and KarageorgevichPetrovic. As as result Serbia becomes a semi-independent state.

  • 1821 The Romanians revolt under Tudor Vladimirescu. Vladimirescu had ties with the HetairiaPhilike. Although the revolt was defeated, it put an end to Phanariot rule. The Romanians regained their old autonomy in relations to the Ottomans.

1830 France goes to the Barricades Revolution, Again!!

Workers, students and some of the middle class call for a Republic!

Charles x
Charles X

  • Although the Charter of 184 was still in effect, Charles governed with the help of ultra-royalist ministers

  • In 1830 the because of elections to parliament returned many deputies who opposed him

  • Charles dismisses parliament

Louis Philippe  The “Citizen King”

  • The Duke of Orleans.

  • Relative of the Bourbons,

  • Lead a thoroughly bourgeois life.

  • His Program:

    • Property qualifications reduced enough to double eligible voters.

    • Press censorship abolished.

    • The King ruled by the will of the people, not by the will of God.

    • The Fr Revolution’s tricolor replaced the Bourbon flag.

  • The government was now under the control of the wealthy middle class.

(r. 1830-1848)