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Early/late Paleozoic Geology. Chapter 10 and 11. Last time. Phanerozoic Eon Paleozoic Era Cambrian Ordovician Silurian. Last time. Sequences. Regression should have shale and sandstone as last rocks deposited. Where is the sandstone and shale on top in Sauk and Tippecanoe Sequences?.

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Presentation Transcript
last time
Last time
  • Phanerozoic Eon
  • Paleozoic Era
    • Cambrian
    • Ordovician
    • Silurian
last time3
Last time
  • Sequences
order of rock types
Regression should have shale and sandstone as last rocks deposited.

Where is the sandstone and shale on top in Sauk and Tippecanoe Sequences?

Order of rock types

Limestone

Shale

Sandstone

north american craton
North American craton
  • Appalachian mobile belt
rocks of the appalachian mobile belt
Rocks of the Appalachian mobile belt

mid to end of

Ordovician

Volcanic ash in shales

Shales, no mud cracks,

no stromatolites

mid-Ordovician-

Silurian

Cambrian-

Early Ordovician

Sandstone, stromatolites,

Mud cracks, cross bedding

appalachian mobile belt in cambrian
Appalachian mobile belt in Cambrian
  • Passive margin and shallow water
appalachian mobile belt in cambrian and early ordovician
Appalachian mobile belt in Cambrian and Early Ordovician
  • Laurentia is still passive margin
  • Iapetus ocean opens w/ divergent margin
appalachian mobile belt in middle ordovician silurian
Appalachian mobile belt in middle Ordovician-Silurian
  • Deeper water deposition (Tippecanoe Sequence)
middle ordovician
Middle Ordovician
  • Iapetus plate subducts under Laurentia
  • Volcanoes form
  • Onset of mountains
  • Taconic orogeny
  • Forms Taconic highlands
  • New York, Mass., Vt.
how to date taconic orogeny
How to date Taconic orogeny
  • Volcanic ash layers
  • Intrusive igneous rocks
  • 440-480 m.y.
evidence of taconic orogen
Evidence of Taconic orogen
  • What happens with formation of new mountains (highlands?)
  • Accumulation of detrital sediment
  • Thickest near mountains (source area)
  • Thinner, small particles away from source
  • Queenston Delta
evidence of taconic orogen13
Evidence of Taconic orogen
  • What happens with formation of new mountains (highlands?)
  • Accumulation of detrital sediment
  • Thickest near mountains (source area)
  • Thinner, small particles away from source
  • Queenston Delta
early paleozoic geology
Early Paleozoic geology
  • Sauk and Tippecanoe sequences
  • Taconic orogeny
late paleozoic
Late Paleozoic
  • Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian
late paleozoic sed rocks
Late Paleozoic sed rocks

oldest

  • Tippecanoe sequence (ends early Devonian)
  • Unconformity/ erosion
  • Middle Devonian: transgression

youngest

late paleozoic sed rocks17
Late Paleozoic sed rocks
  • Kaskaskia sequence
  • What rock is deposited first?
  • New York, Penn.
devonian geography
Devonian Geography
  • Above sandstone:
    • Shales, limestones/ evaporites
kaskaskia sed rocks
Kaskaskia sed. rocks
  • Devonian reefs of western Canada
  • Barrier reefs, evaporite basins
  • Sound familiar?
new rock type in kaskaskia black shales
New rock type in Kaskaskia: black shales
  • Black since organic-rich
  • Need:
    • High organic activity
    • Low oxygen water
new rock type in kaskaskia black shales21
New rock type in Kaskaskia: black shales
  • Black since organic-rich
  • Need:
    • High organic activity
    • Low oxygen water
end of kaskaskia sequence
End of Kaskaskia sequence
  • Return to limestones in Mississippian
  • Fossils of reefs!
end of kaskaskia sequence23
End of Kaskaskia sequence
  • Return to limestones in Mississippian
  • Fossils of reefs!
late kaskaskia
Late Kaskaskia
  • Return to limestones in Mississippian
  • Fossils of reefs!
famous mississippian limestone
Famous Mississippian limestone
  • Indiana limestone
  • Empire mine
pennsylvanian
Pennsylvanian
  • Late Mississippian: Kaskaskia Sea regression
  • Unconformity divides Mississippian & Pennsylvanian
  • Sea returns with Absaroka sequence
new to absaroka sequence
New to Absaroka sequence
  • Sequence of marine/nonmarine rocks
  • What kind of sed. environment can we form these rocks?
  • Called cyclothems
complete cyclothem
Complete cyclothem
  • Cyclothems contain coal
  • Coal is dead plants
cyclothems coal
Cyclothems & coal
  • Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia
pennsylvanian coal swamps
Pennsylvanian coal swamps
  • How such widespread “delta” environments?
  • How could sea level change over such large area?
  • Glaciers in Gondwana
end of absaroka sequence
End of Absaroka sequence
  • Permian
  • Lots of limestone!
  • West Texas
sed sequences of n america

Sandstone

Limestone of

Mississippian

Black Shale

Limestone

& evaporites

Sandstone

Kaskaskia Sequence

Sed. Sequences of N. America

Limestone

Coal

Sandstone

Absaroka

Sequence

sed sequences of n america34
Sed. Sequences of N. America

Limestone

with evaporites

Limestone

Shale

Shale

Sandstone

Sandstone

Tippecanoe

Sequence

Sauk

Sequence

late paleozoic sed rock summary
Late Paleozoic sed rock summary
  • Kaskaskia: sandstone, limestone, black shale, limestone
  • Absaroka: sandstone, coal swamps, evaporites & limestones