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Unit 6 Free Market and Role of Government. The existence of competition in a free market economy ensures individual choice. . The government can protect a free market economy by maintaining a stable currency, tax breaks to proprietorships, law and order….

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Unit 6 Free Market and Role of Government. The existence of competition in a free market economy ensures individual choice.

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The government can protect a free market economy by maintaining a stable currency, tax breaks to proprietorships, law and order…

Scarcity – The basic economic problem that arises because people have unlimited wants but resources are limited

51 how do individuals and governments utilize scarce resources
51. How do individuals and governments utilize scarce resources?

Trade Off/Opportunity Costs – A benefit, profit, or value of something that must be given up to acquire or achieve something else.

Factors of Production – Resources

required for the production process.

Ex. Land, Labor, Capital, Enterprise

slide4
Economic Questions:
  • What is to be produced?
  • How are the goods to be produced? 
  • For whom are the goods produced.
traditional economic systems
Traditional Economic Systems
  • The economy is based on custom, the

way things have always been done.

  • low technology development
  • the “village” takes care

of each other

  • Often a leader and elders

make decisions.

command economy
Command Economy
  • The government controls the economy.
  • technology use varies according to the economic system and the country
  • The government provides the goods and services it chooses.
market economy free market capitalism free enterprise
Market economy (free market, capitalism, free enterprise)
  • The economy is based on supply (producers) and demand (consumers).
  • medium to high technology use
  • Each individual takes care of

him/herself

  • Government stays out of the

economy (“laissez-faire)

characteristics of a market economy
Characteristics of a market economy
  • Laissez-faire– government

leave business/free enterprise

alone, “hands off”

  • Invisible hand – the economy will be balanced

by competition, profit motive and self interest

  • Consumer sovereignty - the consumers and their demand are the driving forces in a market economy
  • What consumers purchase is

their private property, the

goods/services belong to the

consumers

sole proprietorship
Sole Proprietorship
  • Sole Proprietorship
    • a business owned and operated by a single individual
advantages of a sole proprietorship
Advantages of a Sole Proprietorship
  • Most popular type of business in the US (75% of businesses)
  • Easy to start-up
  • Least-regulated form of business
  • Owner gets to keep all profits
  • Owner has full control of management of the business
disadvantages of sole proprietorships
Disadvantages of Sole Proprietorships
  • Unlimited Liability (unlimited losses)
    • Owners are fully and personally responsible for all of firm’s debts
  • Limited Life
    • “dies” when the owner retires or closes the business
partnerships
Partnerships
  • Partnership
    • A business owned and managed by two or more people
partnerships1
Partnerships
  • Advantages
    • Able to raise more money than a sole proprietor
    • Owners are able to specialize
  • Disadvantages
    • Require articles of partnership
    • Unlimited liability
    • (unlimited losses)
    • Potential for conflict
corporations
Corporations
  • Corporation
    • A legal entity, owned by individual stockholders who face limited liability for firm’s debts
a legal entity
“A legal entity…”
  • To start a corporation, must create a legal charter to describe business
  • Corporations have legal identities separate from that of their owners
  • Corporations function in many ways like individuals
    • Pay taxes
    • Sign contracts
    • Can sue others and be sued
owned by individual stockholders
“…owned by individual stockholders…”
  • Stock – certificate of ownership
  • Stockholder(s) are the owner(s)
  • Stockholder(s) elect leaders of the company
  • Money from stock is used to start-up and run the corporation
who face limited liability for the firm s debts
“…who face limited liability for the firm’s debts.”
  • Limited liability (limited losses/debts, can only lose what you put in, NOT personal assets, personal items)
    • Only the corporation, not the owners, is responsible for any debt of the corporation
  • Stockholders can only lose the amount of money they have invested in the business
advantages of corporations
Advantages of Corporations
  • Limited liability for owners
  • Unlimited Life
  • Ability to raise financial capital through stock
  • Can grow very large
disadvantages of corporations
Disadvantages of Corporations
  • Difficult to start-up
  • Owners/stockholders may have very little say in management
  • More government regulation
  • Higher tax rates
law of demand
Law of Demand
  • When prices goes up the quantity demanded goes down.
  • When the price goes down the quantity demanded goes up.
demand shift factors
Demand Shift Factors
  • Population – more people = more demand
  • Income – more money = more demand
  • Substitutes – higher price for butter decreases demand for butter and increases the demand for margarine
  • Complements – higher price for peanut butter usually reduces demand for peanut butter and for jelly
  • Tastes and Preferences – more popular = more demand
demand shifts
Demand Shifts
  • rise in demand = rise in demand curve to the right. (high demand for turkeys before Thanksgiving)
  • drop in demand – lower in demand curve to the left (little demand for turkeys after Thanksgiving).
law of supply
Law of Supply
  • Suppliers will offer more (higher quantity) of a good at a high price
  • As price increases, quantity the supplier is willing to supply increases
  • Price and quantity supplied go in same direction
economics choices for the supplier the producer
Economics choices for the supplier (the producer)
  • 1. fixed costs – a cost that will remain fairly constant; the price of rent,
  • 2. variable costs – costs that will change, a producer will not pay the same every month; the electricity
  • 3. total costs – the fixed costs + the variable costs
  • 4. marginal costs – the cost of adding one more unit of production (what is the cost of producing just one more item, one more “baconator” if new employees/machinery must be included in the pricing?)
supply shifts too
Supply shifts too!
  • Cost of Resources (input)
  • (also called factors of production)
    • If the price of resources used in production increase, the supply will decrease
    • Price of resources decreases, supply increases
  • Government Influence (taxation + regulation)
    • If government limits supply, the supply decreases
    • If government supports more supply, the supply increases (ex/ farm subsidies)
    • If government regulations increase production costs (environmental regulations EPA, or safety regulations OSHA), supply may decrease
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Surplus is when there is an excess supply of a product.

Shortage is when the quantity demanded is higher than the available supply

monopoly how does competition affect price and output
MonopolyHow does competition affect price and output?

1. Only one seller in the market

2. Extremely difficult to enter the market

3. Produces 1 product

4. Doesn’t need to compete

5. Full control over price

  • Examples
    • Duke Power
    • Pizza at Wake Forest
monopolies
Monopolies
  • Sometimes called a “market failure”
  • Full price control
  • Total market power
  • Should the government regulate monopolies?
oligopoly how does competition affect price and output
OligopolyHow does competition affect price and output?

1. A few (2-4) sellers in the market

2. Difficult to enter the market

3. Similar products

4. Compete with few other sellers

5. Some control over price

  • Examples
    • Forsyth and Baptist Hospital
    • American Car Companies
competitive market how does competition affect price and output
Competitive MarketHow does competition affect price and output?

1. Large number of sellers

2. Easy entry into the market

3. Very similar products

4. Highly competitive

5. Very little price control

  • Examples
    • Pizza
    • Groceries
monetary policy
Monetary policy$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
  • Controlled by the Federal Reserve System
  • Discount rate
    • The rate the Federal Reserve Bank (a bank for the banks) charges a member bank for a loan.
  • Open market operations
    • Buying and selling of government bonds
monetary policy1
Monetary policy$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
  • Loose monetary policy (to help the business cycle expand)
    • Decrease the discount rate, decreases interest rates
    • Buy bonds – gives $ to bond holders
  • Tight monetary policy (to help the business cycle contract)
    • Increase the discount rate – increases interest rates, fewer customers/businesses will borrow $
    • Sell bonds – takes money from bond holders
monetary policy2
Monetary policy$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
  • Loose monetary policy
    • Creates more money
    • Long term could cause inflation
  • Tight monetary policy
    • Reduces the money available
    • Long term could cause unemployment if consumers stop spending and businesses begin to lay off employees
fiscal freaking federal fiscal tax me and spend it on you policy
Fiscal(freaking, federal, fiscal tax me and spend it on you policy)
  • Government spending
    • Spending money on infrastructure (roads, bridges, dams, flood gates…)
    • Military, education, Medicare, Social Security
    • Unemployment, health care
  • Government taxes
    • Progressive income taxes
    • Excise taxes (gas, alcohol, cigarettes, tanning)
fiscal freaking federal fiscal tax me and spend it on you policy1
Fiscal(freaking, federal, fiscal tax me and spend it on you policy)
  • Loose fiscal policy
    • Increase government spending
    • Decrease taxes
  • Tight fiscal policy
    • Decrease government spending
    • Increase taxes
fiscal freaking federal fiscal tax me and spend it on you policy2
Fiscal(freaking, federal, fiscal tax me and spend it on you policy)
  • Loose fiscal policy effects
    • More $ for consumers and businesses
    • Business cycle will expand
  • Tight fiscal policy effects
    • Less $ for consumers and businesses
    • Business cycle will contract
the business cycle
the business cycle

peak

  • ...

contraction

expansion

trough

trough

the business cycle1
the business cycle

peak

  • ...

peak

peak

trough

recession, 6 months of declining GDP

depression, high unemployment, low GDP, low CPI

two major indicators
Two major indicators...

GDP = Gross domestic product= total dollar value of all final goods and services produced in a country

CPI = Consumer Price Index= measure of change in price over time of specific goods/services

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