AS Economics and Business Changes in supply and Demand Unit 2b. By Mrs Hilton For revisionstation. From the spec. Learning Objectives. To be able to discuss the changes in demand and supply To be able to discuss the profit signalling mechanism
AS Economics and BusinessChanges in supply and DemandUnit 2b
By Mrs Hilton For revisionstation
From the spec
Learning Objectives To be able to discuss the changes in demand and supply To be able to discuss the profit signalling mechanism To be able to discuss the allocation of resources To be able to answer some past paper questions
Starter When the weather is hot what kinds of products do you tend to buy more of?
Recap types of goods Normal – if incomes rises demand stays the same Inferior – if income rise demand for these fall as consumers buy better products Substitute – a good that can be switched if the price goes too high, instead of cinema go bowling Complimentary – items where the demand for one will affect the demand for another like DVD for a DVD player, petrol for a car
Profit signalling mechanism Price of a good or service is a key piece of information for buyers and sellers. High profits act as a signal for existing producers to produce more or for new firms to enter the market.
Changes in demand
Changes in Demand due to PRICE Change in pricewill cause a MOVEMENT along the demand curve If the price of a car goes up then then demand will move from point a to point b on the demand curve – as less goods are demanded at that price Costs more? Less customers b a
Changes in demand due to NON-price tastes and preferences of consumers (trends) the number of consumers the incomes of consumers (rising real income) (wages) the prices of complimentary goods consumers’ expectations concerning future availability or prices of the goods. Cost of loans Economic growth New products entering the market Advertising Population changes If any of these factors change then demand will change and will cause a SHIFT in the demand curve up or down
Changes in demand curve due to NON-PRICE If consumer incomes risethen the demand curve (for a normal good) will SHIFT up and right
Changes in demand curve due to non-price determinants If tastes for a good fall and demand falls then the demand curve will drop to the left
Drawing demand Shifts with demand and supply lines s P D1 D Q
Changes in Supply
Changes in supply due to PRICE Changes in PRICE may cause movement along the supply curve b As the price rises the business wants to supply more goods at this price, so quantity goes up with price a
Changes in supply due to NON-Price Weather e.g. Loss of crops Technical progress Change in price of productive factors (not of cost of good to consumer) Changes in price of raw materials Changes in tax Changes in subsidies
Changes in supply due to NON-PRICE If weather is good and crops flourish then supply curve will shift to the right
Changes in supply due to NON-PRICE If the cost of raw materials goes up the supply curve will shift to the left
Drawing supply Shiftswith demand and supply lines s1 s P D Q
Summary Price? Causes movement along Non-price (like weather or incomes) causes a shift p = m np = s Playmates makes me happy, no playmates makes me sad :0(
Walkthrough question Question Draw a diagram to illustrate the impact of rising costs such as staff wages on an estate agency business.
Walkthrough solved s1 s P2 p1 d Q1 Q2
Sample question 1 Explain why high profits can act as a signal to producers to enter the UK travel market. 
Answer question 1 Knowledge/understanding 2, Application 1, Analysis 1 Knowledge/understanding: up to 2 marks are available for explaining that profit is the aim of most businesses (1 mark), is the difference between revenue and total costs (1 mark). Profit signalling mechanism may attract new entrants into the market. (1 mark) Application: up to 1 mark for contextual answers e.g. the UK travel market is currently experiencing growth (1 mark) e.g. holidays, tours, weekend breaks and this may attract new entrants into the market (1 mark). Analysis: up to 1 mark for demonstrating that high profits could therefore attract new entrants into the market (1 mark) or existing businesses to supply more (1 mark) e.g. holidays, tours, weekend breaks. More able candidates might refer to and develop the profit signalling mechanism (1 mark) e.g. may lead to higher business confidence which may encourage enterprise. (1 mark)
Sample question 2 Which of the following is most likely to increase the demand for DVD players? A A fall in incomes B A fall in the price of a substitute good C A fall in the price of a complementary good D A fall in the population size
Answer question 2 Answer - A fall in the price of a complementary good (C) - Complementary goods are ones that are somehow linked (1 mark) - Purchasing one will lead to the purchase of its complement (1 mark). - If DVDs fall in price more will be bought thus increasing the demand for the complementary good (DVD players) (1 mark). - The opposite will happen with substitute goods (1 mark). - The other choices will also result in reduced demand (1 mark if explained fully).
Sample question 3 After a global shortage the two main truck tyre manufacturers are reporting that there will be a tyre shortage. This has meant a threefold increase in the price. Using a diagram, illustrate and explain why the global price of truck tyres has increased so much. [6 marks] Hint this is about a non-price factor (a shortage of product) which will raise the price. This is not about high prices so the curve will need to be a shift not a movement.
Answer question 3 Knowledge 2, Application 3, Analysis 1 Knowledge: up to 2 marks are available for the diagram. Market forces cause changes in price. In this case the demand curve has shifted to the right. Application: up to 3 marks are available which is to be split: Diagram: 2 marks for the diagram showing a rightwards shift of the demand curve causing a movement along the supply curve (1 mark) showing an increase in price and to an extent quantity (1 mark). Written explanation set in context (1 mark). Analysis: 1 mark for explaining that there is an increased demand for truck tyres. The tyre companies cannot meet the demand from existing capacity and prices are forced up.
Sample question 4 Using a suitable diagram, illustrate and explain the likely effects of rising costs on the sale of winter holidays.  Hint– the question is the impact of a non- price factor on those supplying winter holidays which is why it is a supply diagram. There is no mention of customers or price. As the costs increase so the supply decreases so it shifts up and left.
Answer question 4 Knowledge: up to 2 marks are available for the diagram: There should be a demand and supply diagram with a leftward/inward shift of the supply curve. NB No marks are available if the candidate draws an incorrect diagram or shifts the demand curve. Application: up to 3 marks are available: Diagram: 2 marks for the diagram showing an inward shift of the supply curve causing a movement along the demand curve (1 mark) showing an increase in price and a decrease in quantity demanded (1 mark). NB: A total of 4 marks are available for the correct diagram
Sample question 5 If an increase in a consumer’s income causes the consumer to decrease the quantity demanded of baked beans, then baked beans might best be described as A a complementary good. B an inferior good. C a normal good. D a substitute good.
Answer question 5 B Inferior good • Inferior goods have a negative income elasticity of demand i.e. demand falls as income rises (1 mark). • Sales of inferior goods such as baked beans are likely to decrease when incomes rise as consumers change to ‘better’ or more attractive alternatives (1 mark) e.g. organic vegetables (1 mark). • A complementary good is one which is linked with the purchase of another good (1 mark) e.g. DVD and DVD players and baked beans are not linked to any other product (1 mark). • A substitute good is an alternative to a product (1 mark). • A normal good is a good for which demand increases as incomes rise (1 mark) therefore baked beans cannot be classed as a normal good if the quantity demanded decreases as incomes rise (1 mark)