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Arrays and Strings. Chapter 9. Declaring arrays. Stepping through arrays. Passing arrays as parameters. Inspecting arrays. "All students to receive arrays!" reports Dr. Austin. scores : 85 79 92 57 68 80. 0 1 2 3 4 5 98 99. Why??. Design Problem.

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all students to receive arrays reports dr austin

Declaring arrays

Stepping through arrays

Passing arrays as parameters

Inspecting arrays

"All students to receive arrays!" reports Dr. Austin.

scores : 85 79 92 57 68 80 . . .

0 1 2 3 4 5 98 99

design problem


Design Problem
  • Consider a program to calculate class average


add to design problem
Add to Design Problem
  • Now your client says, I need to ALSO calculate and display “deviations” from the average

Describe why this will or will NOT work

possible solutions
Possible Solutions

  • Enter in the scores again
  • Use 100 separate variables
    • and cout and cin commands
  • Read (then re-read) from a file
  • The real answer …

Use arrays!!

simple vs structured data types

avg : 84.35

ch : ‘A’

x : 15

scores : 85 79 92 57 68 80

name : ‘C’ ‘L’ ‘Y’ ‘D’ ‘E’

Simple vs Structured Data Types
  • Simple data type => data element contains a single value
  • Structured data type => a data element contains a collection of data values

cout << scores[2];scores[0] = 100;

  • Arrays are Structured Data Types
  • They have a means of accessing individual components
  • Values can be retrieved from and stored in the structure

scores : 85 79 92 57 68 80

0 1 2 3 4 5

one dimensional array
One Dimensional Array
  • Structured collection of components
    • All of the same type
  • Structure given a single name
  • Individual elements accessed by index indicating relative position in collection
  • Type of elements stored in an array can be “just about” anything
  • Index of an array must be an integer
use of array for our problem

Note declaration

Use of Array for Our Problem
  • Store elements in array as read in
  • Go back and access for deviations
declaring arrays

Tells how many elements set aside

Declaring Arrays
  • Syntax: Data_type Array_name [constant];
  • Note declaration from our example
declaring arrays1
Declaring Arrays
  • Example specifies an array…
    • each element is an integer
    • there is space for 100 elements
    • the are numbered 0 through 99

scores : 85 79 92 57 68 80 . . .

0 1 2 3 4 5 98 99

accessing individual components
Accessing Individual Components
  • Use the name of the array
  • Followed by an integer expression inside the square brackets [ ]

scores : 85 79 92 57 68 80 . . .

0 1 2 3 4 5 98 99

Index can be:- constant- variable- expressionMUST be an integer

max = scores[0];for (x = 0; x < 100; x++) if (scores[x] > max) max = scores[x];

out of bounds index
Out of Bounds Index

float f_list [50];

f_list [100] = 123.456;

  • What happens if …
  • C++ does NOT check for index out of range
  • Possible to walk off into “far reaches” of memory -- clobbers ...
    • other variable locations
    • .exe code
    • the operating system (??)
initializing arrays in declarations
Initializing Arrays in Declarations
  • Possible to declare the size & initialize
  • Possible to omit size at declaration
    • Compiler figures out size of array

int results [5] = {14, 6, 23, 8, 12 }

float prices [ ] = { 2.41, 85.06, 19.95, 3.91 }

aggregate operations
Aggregate Operations
  • Defn => an operation on the data structure as a whole
    • as opposed to operation on a SINGLE element within the structure
  • Example
    • would be nice to read in a WHOLE array
lack of aggregate operations
Lack of Aggregate Operations
  • Would be nice but . . . C++ does NOT have . . .
  • Assignment operator for whole array
  • Arithmetic operations for whole array (think matrix)
  • Comparisons for arrays (not even = =)
  • Return of an array type by a function
how to accomplish aggregate operations
How to Accomplish Aggregate Operations?
  • Most such tasks (assignment, read, write) can be performed some other way
    • CS II course will write “classes” to provide these functions
  • Otherwise
    • these operations must be performed by the programmer
    • element by element in a loop
arrays as parameters
Arrays as Parameters
  • This is one task that CAN be done to the WHOLE array
  • C++ always passes arrays by reference
arrays as parameters1
Arrays as Parameters
  • The name of the array is a pointer constant
  • The address of the array is passed to the function
  • Size of thearray alsopassed tocontrol loop
arrays as parameters2
Arrays as Parameters
  • Note the empty brackets in parameter list
    • A number can be placed here but it will beignored
sub array processing
Sub-array Processing
  • Note we specified an array size of 100
    • but we don’t anticipate that many scores
  • Array always declared larger than needed
  • Must keep track of how many have been used
    • this is our limit when doing other things to the array
c strings or character arrays
C-Strings or Character Arrays
  • We have learned that the elements of an array can be just about anything
  • Consider an array whose elements are all characters
    • Called a C-String
    • Has a collection of special routines
    • Treated differently for I/O than other types of arrays
declaration of c strings
Declaration of C-Strings
  • Similar to declaration of any arraychar name[30]; // no initializationchar title [20] = "Le Grande Fromage"; // initialized at declaration // with a stringchar chList [10] = {'a', 'b', 'c', 'd'}; // initialized with list of char // values
working with character strings
Working with Character Strings
  • String => a collection of characters interpreted as a single item
    • a structured data item
    • in C++ a null-terminated sequence of characters stored in a char array
  • All strings in C++ are terminated by the null character
    • character 0,‘\0’
initializing strings

greeting = “don’t do it;

Initializing Strings
  • When a character array is declared, it is legal to use the assignment operator to initialize
  • Note : use of the = operator only legal for char array initialization
  • But : aggregate array assignment is NOT
string output
String Output
  • Strings (character arrays) are handled differently than other types of arrays
  • This would NOT be allowed
  • This is legal:

int num_list [100];. . .cout << num_list;

char name [30] = “Snidly Q. Fizbane”; . . .

cout << name;

string input
String Input
  • Declare strings 1 element bigger than planned size to allow for ‘\0’
  • When input takes place, C++ automatically places the ‘\0’ in memory at the end of the characters typed in
problems with for string input
Problems with >> for String Input
  • Cannot be used to input a string with imbedded blanks
  • >> stops reading as soon as it encounters first whitespace character
problems with for string input1
Problems with >> for String Input
  • Solve problem by using getline ( … )

Quits reading after 15 charactersor when it hits a newline,whichever comes first.

Includes all charactersincluding spaces, tabs, etc(whitespace characters)

problems with for string input2
Problems with >> for String Input
  • If declared string is too small >> keeps putting characters in memory PAST that area in memory

s2 contents extendinto the memory area of s3

using strings
Using Strings
  • Instead of “hard coding” file name for the open ( … ) command,
    • use a string variable,
    • use keyboard entry with cin.getline(…)
    • program more flexible, good for different files

ifstream inFile;char fname[31];cout << “Enter file name -> “;cin.getline (fname, 30, ‘\n’); (fname);

string library routines
String Library Routines
  • Recall that we could not use the aggregate assignment of one string to another
  • C++ provides some string handling functions to do this (and other similar tasks)
  • Found in <string.h>or <cstring>
contrast compare strings and c strings
Assignment is OKstring s;s = "hi mom";

Comparison OKif (s < "geek") …

I/O allowedcin >> s;cin.getline(s,'\n');cout << s;

Assignment is illegalchar cs[30];cs = "don't do it";

Comparisons not allowed

I/O allowed much the same way

Contrast/Compare Strings and C-Strings
working with c strings

Used instead of assignment

Used for comparisons

Working with C-Strings
  • Functions provided in #include <cstring>
another problem
Another Problem
  • Some functions require C-strings as parameters
    • The .open()command for files
  • C-strings are terminated by the null character (character 0)
    • Such functions are looking for that
  • String objects are built differently
solving the file open problem
Solving the File Open Problem
  • One of the functions available for a string object will convert it to a C-String
  • The function is c_str()
  • Remember that string functions are called by using
    • The variable
    • The member operator var.c_str()
    • The name of the function
  • View example
design problem1
Design Problem
  • Consider the task of keeping track of data about parts for manufacture
    • part number, description, qty needed, unit price
design problem2
Use “Parallel” arrays

One array each for part num, descrip, qty, price

nth item in any one of the arrays associated with same nth item of all the arrays

part #















Design Problem
testing and debugging hints
Testing and Debugging Hints
  • Range of legal index values is 0 to array_size - 1
  • Individual elements of the array are of the component type
  • No aggregate operations in arrays
    • you must write the code to do this
  • If array parameter is incoming, specify formal parameter as const
    • prevents function from modifying
testing and debugging hints1
Testing and Debugging Hints
  • Omitting array size in declaration
    • when array declared formal parameter
    • when array initialized at declaration
  • Don’t pass component when function expects entire array
  • Declare array size as max ever needed
    • process only part of array which is used
  • Pass array name and length to functions which process array or sub array
testing and debugging
Testing and Debugging
  • Be sure to account for null character when you manipulate characters individually in a string
  • Remember proper use of the =
    • correct for initialization at declarationtime
    • INCORRECT for aggregate assignment
  • Aggregate input/output allowed for strings but NOT for other array types
testing and debugging1
Testing and Debugging
  • If you use the >> for string input, make sure
    • string is declared large enough
    • string will have no white spaces
  • The >> operator stops at, but does not consume the first trailing white space
    • such as ‘\n’ or a space
  • The cin.getline (whatever, 30, ‘\n’ ) function
    • stops when reading the ‘\n’
    • consumes the ‘\n’
    • has problems when ‘\n’ is still in the input stream
testing and debugging2
Testing and Debugging
  • When using the strcpy ( ), make sure that the destination array is declared long enough
  • Choose test data carefully for string handling programs
    • include strings that are too large
    • include strings with whitespace