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  1. Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies Observational and Theoretical Progress until 2003 The Review Thomas Boller Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik Garching Germany NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  2. Broad-Line Seyfert 1´s Hb [OIII] -2 -1 -1 [OIII] Hb Flu x [erg cm s Hz ] Fe II Fe II l[A] Moderate soft X-ray excess Broad Hb Weak Fe II Strong [OIII] Giant soft X-ray excess Narrow Hb Strong Fe II Weak [OIII] Enlarging the Seyfert parameter space 0.Definition and the enlarged observational parameter space Narrow-Line Seyfert 1´s NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  3. I. Historical Review 1985Osterbrock & Pogge: Definition 1. Permitted lines are only slightly broader than the forbidden lines 2. Fe [VII], Fe [X] emission lines 3. [OIII]/Hb < 3 4. FWHM Hb < 2000 km s-1(Goodrich 1989) R. Pogge 1. In the beginning 1971 Zwicky: first report on extreme variability ‘optical outbursts in I Zw1‘ 1987 Halpern & Oke:importance as X-ray sources 1992 Puchnarewicz:report on steep X-ray spectra NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  4. 2. The ROSAT/ASCA Renaissance 1997Laor analysis of quasar sample 1999Leighly, Vaughan ASCA statistics on soft X-ray excess sources 1993 Boller,Trümper,Fink, Molendi & Dennefeld discovery of extreme and rapid X-ray variability Dt = 800 s,DL = 1044 erg s-1 1996 Boller,Brandt &Fink soft X-ray continuum and optical line width relation 1997Boller,Brandt,Fabian &Fink discovery of persistent, rapid and giant X-ray variability factor of 60 in 1 day NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  5. 2000 Mineshige Slim disc models for NLS1 2002 Fabian, Lee, Branduardi Nature of the soft X-ray spectral complexity 3. The XMM-Newton/Chandra Era > 2000 Boller, Tanaka, Fabian, Brandt, Gallo et al. The XMM-Newton GT/AO Programme on NLS1 NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  6. II. What have we learned from ROSAT, ASCA and BeppoSAX 1. The influence of the emission from the inner ~100 light seconds to the BLR and NLR Boller, Leighly, Brandt, Wills, et al. 2. NLS1s as the most X-ray variable radio-quiet AGN (Boller et al. , Leighly et al.) NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  7. NLS1 and their giant soft X-ray excess emission BLS1 100 101 102 rel. Flux 0.1 1 5 10 Energy [keV] NLS1 100 101 102 103 rel. Flux 0.1 1 5 10 Energy [keV] Giant soft X-ray emission Moderate soft X-ray emission Power-law approximation F ~ E-G G ~2.3 for E=(0.1-2.4 keV) F ~ E-G with G up to 5 strongest disc emission yet found in Seyfert galaxies NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  8. Soft X-ray slope - optical BLR line width relation ROSAT results Boller, Brandt, Fink 1996 hotter disc Emission from the accretion disc determines v-dispersion in the BLR extreme soft excess moderate ~ velocity dispersion in the BLR NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  9. NLS1 publication statistics FWHM Hb - G relation Osterbrock & Pogge NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  10. BLS1 publication rate: NLS1 publication rate: d(paper) / dt [NLS1] = 8..10 2003: ~5000 papers  2007: ~5000 papers NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  11. The underlying physical parameter 1 4 L(accretion) = L(Planck) T ~ x M M 2 lower black hole mass and/or higher accretion rate Ionization parameter U + Kepler motions 3 4 - 1 4 1 4 2 FWHM ~ n n n U U R R T p e e U = e FWHM = (GM/R)1/2 n e 3 16 M2 M ~ x NLS1 form the low-mass black hole range of AGN Boller 2000 NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  12. Reverberation results NLS1:The young Seyfert‘s B. Peterson S.Mathur NLS1 as low mass black holes Super-solar metalliticies NLS1 are AGN in the making AGN with the lowest BH masses NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  13. 3. XMM-Newton discoveries: New puzzles 3.1. Detections of sharp spectral drops > 7 keV Boller, Tanaka, Fabian 2003 IRAS 13224-3809 1H 0707-495 Boller, Fabian, Sunyaev, Trümper 2002 EPIC pn EPIC pn EPIC MOS Counts s-1 keV-1 Counts s-1 keV-1 Spectral drop at 7.1 keV Spectral drop at 8.2 keV No line at 6.4 keV 0.2 1 2 3 5 10 0.2 1 2 3 5 10 Energy [keV] Energy [keV] Fe Absorption must result into Fe K Re-emission Why do we not detect the Fe K line emission ?? Discrepancy between absorption and emission (>5) Boller, Tanaka, Fabian, Brandt, Sunyaev, Gallo, Anabuki, Haba

  14. Absorbing cloud observer Accretion disc Unabsorbed radiation Observers sees full absorption Unabsorbed radiation High density cool cloud at distance r Small solid angle covered Therefore minor Fe K re-emission Possible explanation Partial covering Probability problem when source is too far away from the black hole P(1Lj) = 10-9 Solution: place the absorber into the accretion disc region NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  15. Variable Absorption Profile IRAS 13224-3809 3.2. Puzzling new observational facts Soft X-ray emission line? Fe L Absorption 1H 0707-495 (AO2) 1H0707 (AO2) IRAS 13224-3809 2002 Edge energy shift flux 1H0707 (AO1) 2000 (AO1) 7.10 7.44 Energy [keV] Will be discussed by Prof. Tanaka NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  16. Problems with the current models 1. Problem with the absorption model: - Absorption edge at 8.2 keV arises from Fe XIX - XXIII (7.93,8.07,8,21,8.35, 8.49 keV), edge should be broad, with ~ 600 eV, rather than sharp (<100 eV) - The feature may be a neutral edge in approaching matter - Power-law cut-off model used to get: Fe 3-10 solar 2. Soft X-ray spectral features difficult to understand Absorption line profile changes not understood Broad emission line, without presence of other alpha elements is puzzling 3. Problem with the line interpretation: large equivalent width It might be another, new physical mechanism, we are not aware of so far NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  17. Model-indepenent implications relativistic Fe K line detections are difficult with the present generation of X-ray telescopes Curved X-ray continua in sources with sharp spectral drops remove part of the relativistic redshift based on a simple power-law continuum Other effects: - ionization state of the disc - light bending (Iwasawa, Miniutti) NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  18. Compton broadening + relativistic motions Compton broadening for x > 300 Photons cm-2 s-1 keV-1 XEUS ´fit` Line detectable Energy [keV] Simulation of line profiles for ionized discs XMM-Newton ´fit` Relativistic line not detectable Counts s-1 keV-1 ratio Energy [keV] Curvature of the continuum makes Fe K line very difficult to detect NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  19. 4. Implications for future missions ESA, NASA, Japanese long term X-ray projects NASA Chandra Constellation-X Maxim ESA ROSITA Exosat ROSAT XMM-Newton XEUS Japanese ASCA Ginga Astro-EII MAXI NEXT 1980 1990 2000 2005 2011 2017 2020 NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  20. NLS1 research and future missions XMM-Newton/Chandra:>500 ks exposure times required to solve the nature of sharp spectral drops Astro-E2:important to study NLS1s: understand the physics of NLS1s more precisely XEUS/Con-X: fundamental increase of understanding the Seyfert phenomenon still expected NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  21. XEUS - ESA mission under study NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  22. AGN QPO´s: precessing discs or orbital motions? Precession: no spectral variability w = 2G/c2 J r-3 Orbital motions: strong Doppler boosting and associated spectral variability NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  23. Present NLS1 Status Established properties Work in progress Unsolved problems Nature of sharp spectral drops > 7 keV The sharpness of the spectral drop The time-dependent changes in the spectral drop energy, variable Fe L resonance absorption features, presence of single soft emission lines without other a-elements The nature of the soft X-ray complexity Nature of X-ray variations High energy >10 keV spectral properties Underlying physical parameter for spectral properties: low M, high dM/dt Observational constrains from sharp spectral drops Missing relativistic Fe K lines in most objects Understanding the different X-ray variability properties Higher metallicities as indicator of AGNs just in the forming Comptonized soft X-ray spectra Steepest soft and hard X-ray spectra yet detected in AGN Presence of sharp spectral drops without Fe K re-emission Narrow optical line widths The strongest Fe II emitters in the universe Set of radio-, optical-, UV-, X-ray correlations between NLS1 and BLS1 The most X-ray variable AGN Key of understanding the Seyfert phenomenon more generally NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  24. The end - thank you! NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  25. Timing properties Please see Karen´s Leighly talk and Poster by Luigi Gallo #19 A few examples NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  26. Light curve Fractional amplitude variability Tanaka, Gallo, Boller (in prep.) NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  27. The significance of the detection and available photon statistics Spectral drop detected with high significance Photon statistics above 7 keV limited, only about 30 photons ~500 ks observation required source + background spectrum background NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  28. dM/dt, M weakstrong disc emission inverse Compton effect flat steep power-laws dM/dt, M broadnarrow optical lines ? Weak strong Fe II emission smaller M, relativistic effects moderateextreme X-ray variability Seyfert 1 unification through physical processes Broad-Line Seyfert 1Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 huge filling factor in BLR strongnarrow [OIII] emission NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  29. XEUS NFI2 Torres et al. 03 Kerr BH Schwarzschild BH incl 6 10 14 incl 56 60 64 Con-X calorimeter DE = 2eV NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  30. Gallo et al. 2003 NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  31. 3.2. Recent discoveries in the soft X-ray range Fe L absorption at ~ 1.2 keV Variable Fe L profile changes on ~ 1000 s Single soft and strong emission line without presence of other a elements Time dependency of the the presence of soft X-ray lines, luminosities column densities/covering fractions Time dependent changes of the edge energy from 7.10 to 7.44 keV within two years (1H 0707-495) Please see talk by Y. Tanaka NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  32. Statistical significance of the X-ray oscillations Boller, Timmer Long-term flux increase includedLong-term flux increase detrended 3 s c2 2 s 1 s Time [sec] Time [sec] Low statistical significance Periodicity peaks at 2100 and 4200 s NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  33. BH Merger NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  34. 1985Osterbrock & Pogge: Definition 1. Permitted lines are only slightly broader than the forbidden lines 2. Fe [VII], Fe [X] emission lines 3. [OIII]/Hb < 3 4. FWHM Hb < 2000 km s-1(Goodrich 1989) R. Pogge 1987 Halpern & Oke:importance as X-ray sources 1989Stephens:high fraction in X-ray samples `X-ray selection may be an effective way to find NLS1‘ 1992 Puchnarewicz:report on steep X-ray spectra NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  35. Extreme X-ray spectral slopes and variability 2. Extreme progress in defining the observational parameters of NLS1 3. Now important member of the AGN family 4. Whenever we observe NLS1, new observational properties are discovered 5. NLS1 allow a more general understanding of many problems posed by the Seyfert phenomenon The relevance of NLS1 for understanding the Seyfert phenomenon more generally NLS1 are more than just Seyfert 1s with narrow lines NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  36. Warm absorber and/or relativistically broadened C,N,O lines? presence of relativistically- broadened O,N,C lines are claimed from RGS spectra Branduardi-Raymont et al. 2001 Chandra HETG spectra provide a different view NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  37. Lee et al. 2001: major feature at ~0.7 keV: neutral iron absorption Fe L3 Fe L2 OVII absorption explain feature between 0.7 –0.75 keV Presence of significant ionized absorption NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  38. G. Branduardi J. Lee Broad Oxygen Lines Fe L edges A.C. Fabian in X-rays from AGN: Relativistically broadended emission lines potential problem with line interpretation of 707 eV drop 1. EW = 150 eV (much higher than expected) 2. Sharpness 10 eV (RGS) 3 eV (HETG) - O lines produced in highly ionised medium with significant Thomson depth - lines broadended considerable more than 10 eV + Doppler and gravitational redshifts NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller

  39. I. Historical Review (partially based on Pogge 2000) 1. In the beginning 1971 Zwicky: first report on extreme variability ‘optical outbursts in I Zw1‘ 1978Davidson&Kinman: first note on narrow lines `On the possible importance of Mrk 359` `Seyfert I spectrum with unusually narrow permitted lines` `This unusual object merits further observations…‘ 1983Osterbrock & Dahari: 4 NLS1 Osterbrock initiates systematic investigation on NLS1 NLS1 - A Review;www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~bol/kyoto Thomas Boller