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Inclusive Placement Opportunities for Preschoolers: A Systems Approach to Preschool Inclusive Practices. A project of the Virginia Department of Education and the Training and Technical Assistance Centers of Virginia. Fostering social relationships A classwide approach. Agenda.

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slide1
Inclusive Placement Opportunities for Preschoolers: A Systems Approach to Preschool Inclusive Practices

VDOE TTAC 2005

slide2
A project of the

Virginia Department of Education

and the

Training and Technical Assistance Centers of Virginia

VDOE TTAC 2005

agenda
Agenda
  • A few facts
  • Why it’s hard to teach social skills
  • What the research says
  • The teacher’s role
  • Teaching strategies

VDOE TTAC 2005

slide5
What skills do children learn in school that are most likely to lead to successful adjustment in adult life?

VDOE TTAC 2005

a few facts
A few facts
  • People who develop and maintain positive relationships with others are generally happier than those who don’t
  • People who negotiate, problem solve, express their opinions, take another’s perspective, change their behavior and adapt succeed at work and move up in their professions

VDOE TTAC 2005

additional facts
Additional facts
  • Children who do not acquire social skills by grade 3 are extremely likely to drop out of school, commit crimes and eventually become incarcerated
  • If anti-social behavior is not changed by the end of grade 3, it should be treated as a chronic condition, much like diabetes. That is, it cannot be cured but managed with the appropriate supports and intervention (Walker, Colvin & Ramsey, 1995).

VDOE TTAC 2005

pro social behavior
Pro-social behavior
  • The ability to generate and coordinate flexible, adaptive responses to demands and generate and capitalize on opportunities in the environment (Waters and Sroufe, 1983)

VDOE TTAC 2005

why it s so hard to teach social skills
Why it’s so hard to teach social skills
  • You’re at a party and the only person you know just walked away. You….
  • Someone you knew in high school, but haven’t seen since is in the same line with you. You...
  • You see someone you don’t want to talk to you. She waves and you’re not sure she knows you saw her. You…

VDOE TTAC 2005

ways we inadvertently teach anti social behavior
Ways we inadvertently teach anti-social behavior
  • Greet the parent but not the child
  • Talk to the parent or another teacher about the child in front of the child
  • Attribute needs to children
  • Label a child’s behavior
  • Refer to a child by a label

VDOE TTAC 2005

ways we inadvertently teach anti social behavior cont d
Ways we inadvertently teach anti-social behavior (cont’d)
  • Nip it in the bud
  • Take one child’s side
  • Protect a child from emotional distress
  • Talk about other adults in front of children
  • Talk about other children in front of a child
  • Lose it in front of a child or with a child

VDOE TTAC 2005

what are the friendly children doing
What are the “friendly” children doing?
  • Form groups of 3
  • Assign a recorder
  • Think of a “friendly” child in your class
  • List the specific skills that child uses with friends

VDOE TTAC 2005

what we know
What we know
  • Interaction is reciprocal
  • Interaction is ongoing
  • Children learn best when they are in control of their learning
  • Interaction is learned through interaction with others
  • Interactions between two children can be negative or positive. In either case, it becomes more so over time
  • Negative interaction changes when adults intervene

VDOE TTAC 2005

what does the research say about friends
What does the research say about friends?

Emotional regulation

+ Social knowledge and understanding

+ Social skills

Pro-social behavior

VDOE TTAC 2005

emotional regulation
Emotional regulation
  • Control impulses
  • Delay gratification
  • Manage distress

VDOE TTAC 2005

social knowledge and understanding
Social knowledge and understanding
  • Language
  • Take other’s perspective
  • Reach common ground
  • Experience

VDOE TTAC 2005

social skills
Social skills

Enter ongoing play

Imitate

Ask for help

Help others

Compliment

Show affection

Organize

Construct

Negotiate

Take turns

Express self

Persist

Pretend

Gather information

Cooperate

VDOE TTAC 2005

setting the stage
Setting the stage

VDOE TTAC 2005

setting the stage for social relationships
Setting the stage for social relationships
  • Structure the environment
  • Teach social skills
  • Encourage classmates to interact
  • Use child-specific strategies to foster social relationships

VDOE TTAC 2005

structure the environment
Structure the environment
  • Thoughtful schedule
  • Planned environment
  • Physical inclusion
  • Pro-social class expectations
  • Positive statements

VDOE TTAC 2005

thoughtful schedule for pro social behavior
Thoughtful schedule for pro-social behavior
  • Balanced (e.g., mainly child-initiated, some teacher-guided and few large group activities)
  • Predictable routine 
  • Visual schedule
  • Advance warning if changes occur 
  • Alternative activities
  • Thoughtful sequencing of activities
  • Short clean up with active child involvement

VDOE TTAC 2005

thoughtful schedule for pro social behavior23
Thoughtful schedule for pro-social behavior
  • Pre-correction
  • Planned transitions
  • Materials set up in advance
  • Quick starts for activities
  • Defined teacher roles

VDOE TTAC 2005

planned environments for pro social behavior
Planned environments for pro-social behavior
  • Maze layout
  • Quiet and loud zones
  • Varied response mode
  • Quiet spot

VDOE TTAC 2005

planned environments
Planned environments
  • Ensure physical inclusion
  • Socio-dramatic materials in each center
    • Social toys
  • Plan groupings of children with and without disabilities
  • Plan teacher-structured activities

VDOE TTAC 2005

physical inclusion
Physical inclusion
  • Children should:
    • Have access to all toys and materials and all parts of the room
    • Be at the “same level” as other children (e.g., sitting, standing)
    • Participate in all activities (adapt materials)

VDOE TTAC 2005

strategy social toys
Strategy: social toys
  • With your teammates, list toys in your classroom that encourage social interaction

VDOE TTAC 2005

social vs isolate toys
Social vs. isolate toys

Dress-up clothes

Dramatic play materials

Puppets

Vehicles

Sand/water toys

Record player

Blocks

See saw

Kiddie car

Jungle gym

Puzzles

Pegboards and pegs

Art materials

Parquetry

Shape templates

Toy animals

Blackboard

Dolls

Beads

VDOE TTAC 2005

strategy planned groupings
Strategy: planned groupings
  • Small groups include children with disabilities and typically developing children
  • Avoid “shadowing”

VDOE TTAC 2005

teacher structured activities
Teacher-structured activities
  • Modify songs and activities to include directions for displaying affection
  • Inclusive setting
  • Cooperative use of materials
  • Embed opportunities
  • Social interaction goals and objectives
  • Ethos of friendship

VDOE TTAC 2005

teacher structured activities cont d
Teacher-structured activities (cont’d)
  • Modeling principles
  • Modeling with video and puppets
  • Preparing peer partner
  • Buddy system
  • Priming
  • Suggesting play ideas
  • Direct modeling
  • Reinforcement

VDOE TTAC 2005

class expectations against and for pro social behavior
Class expectations against and for pro-social behavior

We keep our hands and feet to ourselves

We listen to the teacher

We ask the teacher for help

We use our words (if taught to say prohibitive statements)

We are gentle with each other

We listen to each other

We help each other

We tell others what we want them to do

Everyone gets to play

VDOE TTAC 2005

praise it s all in how you say it
Praise: It’s all in how you say it!
  • Highlight the child’s accomplishment
  • Specify the behavior
  • Show spontaneity 
  • Make children aware of their thinking and self-control 
  • Connect to prior accomplishments
  • Verbally reward effort
  • Orient the child to his feeling
  • Connect to internal rewards
  • Offer praise in private
  • Be genuine

VDOE TTAC 2005

teach social skills
Teach social skills

Identifying teachable moments

VDOE TTAC 2005

friendship skills
Friendship skills
  • How to give suggestions (play organizers)
  • Sharing toys and other materials
  • Taking turns (reciprocity)
  • Being helpful
  • Giving compliments
  • Understanding how and when to give an apology

VDOE TTAC 2005

slide37

Play organizers

  • Describe
    • Get friend’s attention
    • Give friend a toy
    • Give idea what to do with toy or what to play
  • Demonstrate
    • Right way
    • Wrong way
  • Practice
  • Promote

VDOE TTAC 2005

CSEFEL

slide38

Sharing

  • Describe skill
    • Child has materials
    • Offers or responds to request from peer for materials
  • Demonstrate
    • Right way
    • Wrong way
  • Practice
  • Promote

VDOE TTAC 2005

CSEFEL

slide39

Taking turns

  • Describe skill
    • Get friend’s attention by looking, tapping or calling
    • Hold out hand
    • Ask for toy
  • Demonstrate
    • Right way
    • Wrong way
  • Practice
  • Promote

VDOE TTAC 2005

CSEFEL

slide40

Being helpful/teamwork

  • Describe skill
    • How to help at home
    • How to help at school
  • Demonstrate
    • Right way
    • Wrong way
  • Practice
  • Promote

VDOE TTAC 2005

CSEFEL

slide41

Giving compliments

  • Describe
    • Verbal – Say things like:
      • “Good job _____!”
      • “Great _____!”
      • “You should be proud of how you_____!
    • Physical – Do things like:
      • Hug
      • Pat on the shoulder
      • High five
  • Demonstrate
    • Right way
    • Wrong way
  • Practice
  • Promote

VDOE TTAC 2005

slide42

Knowing when and how to give apologies

  • Describe skill
    • “I’m sorry that ___”
    • “I didn’t mean to ___”
  • Demonstrate
    • Right way
    • Wrong way
  • Practice
  • Promote

VDOE TTAC 2005

encourage classmates to interact
Encourage classmates to interact
  • Teach classmates to:
    • Share toys (if developmentally appropriate)
    • Offer assistance
    • Give compliments
    • Ask questions
    • Be persistent
    • Wait
    • Use alternative communication

VDOE TTAC 2005

use child specific strategies
Use child-specific strategies
  • Incidental teaching
    • Geared toward what the child likes to do
    • Conducted in a natural setting
    • Child determines materials and activity; teacher determines goals
    • Brief, positive interactions focused on child-selected activities
  • Prompting and guiding

VDOE TTAC 2005

teaching 2 and 3 year olds
Teaching 2- and 3-year-olds

Be brief, use action language

Model

Alert children to others’ emotional states

Connect others’ emotional states to the child’s

Give alternative interpretations of events

Label and validate emotions

Teach peers to prompt children

Prompt children

Give two brief ideas to choose from

Redirect children when they opt not to use social skills

Reframe events

VDOE TTAC 2005

teaching 4 and 5 year olds
Teaching 4- and 5-year-olds

Observe

Model

Solicit children’s ideas:

Describe the situation

Ask open-ended questions

Teach children to expect to try again

Encourage children to describe their feelings to each other

Teach peers to prompt children

Prompt children

Redirect children with a brief, straightforward explanation when nothing else works

VDOE TTAC 2005

put it all together
Put it all together…
  • Form groups of 3
  • Assign a recorder
  • Read “What could you do?”
  • Identify the social behaviors not being used by the child(ren)
  • Identify how you would teach the behaviors

VDOE TTAC 2005

what could you do
What could you do?
  • A 2-year-old wants to dance with another 2-year-old. She grabs his hands and starts dancing. The other child pulls his hands away and screams.

VDOE TTAC 2005

what could you do49
What could you do?
  • Two 2-year-olds are pulling on a cowboy hat and screaming, “It’s mine!”
  • Two 4-year-olds are pulling on a cowboy hat and screaming, “It’s mine!”

VDOE TTAC 2005

what could you do50
What could you do?
  • During story time, you encourage children to offer their opinions about the books you read. Damon almost always makes off-topic comments. Usually he talks about his dog, Zea, or dinosaurs. You are currently avoiding asking him to contribute during story.

VDOE TTAC 2005

what could you do51
What could you do?
  • Three-year-old Anna is painting a picture. Four-year-old Sadie trips and falls into the easel and knocks Anna’s paints onto her picture. Anna clinches her fists and looks like she is going to hit Sadie.

VDOE TTAC 2005

what could you do52
What could you do?
  • Two-year-old Truman is watching two other children pretending to be at a pet store. One child is the pet store owner and the other is a customer. The customer is looking at stuffed animals in boxes as she tries to decide which one to buy.

VDOE TTAC 2005

what could you do53
What could you do?
  • You and a mother are talking while she holds her child in her arms. The mother’s 2-year-old tries to talk to her. The mother keeps talking to you. The child gets louder and turns the mother’s face toward him.

VDOE TTAC 2005

why are these ineffective ways to teach pro social behavior
Why are these ineffectiveways to teach pro-social behavior?
  • Telling a child to say he is sorry
  • Telling a child she is rude for interrupting two people talking
  • Telling a child who is hanging on tightly to his father that he is “feeling shy”
  • Asking a child, “Why did you hit?”
  • Asking a child to sit for two minutes to calm down

VDOE TTAC 2005