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Multicultural Awareness. Cultural Definitions versus Stereotypes & APA Division 16: Guides for working with diverse students. Providing Psychological Services to Racially, Ethnically, Culturally, and Linguistically Diverse Individuals in the Schools.

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multicultural awareness

Multicultural Awareness

Cultural Definitions versus Stereotypes


APA Division 16: Guides for working with diverse students


Providing Psychological Services to Racially, Ethnically, Culturally, and Linguistically Diverse Individuals in the Schools


six major domains of service delivery
Six Major Domains of Service Delivery
  • Legal and Ethical Issues
  • School Culture, Educational Policy and Institutional Advocacy
  • Psychoeducational Assessment and Related Issues
  • Academic, Therapeutic and Consultative Interventions
  • Working with Interpreters
  • Research
legal and ethical issues
Legal and Ethical Issues
  • Know the legal precedents and case law.
  • Know legislation that protects civil rights
  • Know about immigration laws, residency, citizenship, and migrant families.
  • Know legislation and litigation regarding bilingual education and (ESL) and the effectiveness of bilingual education/ ESL
  • Are advocates for culturally diverse youths
  • Know to provide school-based services that will positively impact student growth.
meyer v nebraska 1923
Meyer v. Nebraska (1923)
  • Supreme Court Decision
  • It is the parent’s duty to educate their child.
  •  It is a violation of the 14th Amendment to forbid the teaching of foreign language in the school.
brown v board of education 1954
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
  • Supreme Court Decision
  • Racial discrimination in public education is unconstitutional.
  • Rights to students are embedded in due process and equal protection under 14th Amendment
hobson v hansen 1967
Hobson v. Hansen (1967)
  • Supreme Court Decision
  • Schools cannot discriminate on the basis of race or socio-economic status
  • “de facto segregation by race and class, it should be clear that if whites and Negroes, or rich and poor, are to be consigned to separate schools … the minimum the Constitution will require and guarantee is that for their objectively measurable aspects these schools be run on the basis of real equality”
mills v district of columbia 1971
Mills v. District of Columbia (1971)
  • Supreme Court Decision
  • All children are to be provided publicly-supported, alternative educational services if necessary for them to be educated.
  • Though all seven children were African American, this case represented all children with disabilities, not just minority children with disabilities
guadalupe v tempe 1978
Guadalupe v. Tempe (1978)
  • U.S. Court Of Appeals, 9th Circuit
  • Schools must provide bilingual-bicultural education to students based on rights give in the Civil Rights Act and the Equal Education Opportunity Act.
  • Only applied to 9th Circuit area schools (because is not a Supreme Court decision)
johnson v san francisco 1971
Johnson v San Francisco (1971)
  • U.S. Court Of Appeals, 9th Circuit
  • Schools are prohibited from planned segregation of minority students as well as acts resulting in unplanned segregation.
  • de jure segregation:not statutorily but manipulation of student attendance zones, school site selection and a neighborhood school policy, created or maintained racially or ethnically
lau v nichols 1974
Lau v. Nichols (1974)
  • Supreme Court Decision
  • Children must receive instruction in their primary language if they cannot meaningfully participate in an English-only classroom.
  • “students who do not understand English are effectively foreclosed from any meaningful education.”
diana v state board of education 1970
Diana v. State Board of Education (1970)
  • Diana addressed overrepresentation of non-English speaking students in M.R. classrooms.
  • When first tested, her I.Q. (in English-only) was 30.
  • When re-tested, her I.Q. (in her native language) was 80.
  • Result: Testing must be done in the child’s native language.
aspira v board of education 1976
Aspira v Board of Education (1976)
  • U.S. District Court: Southern District Of New York Court Decision
  • Hispanic students and their parents are entitled to bilingual education of some sort when needed for the child to be educated.
  • Lau v. Nichols provided these rights and the Board of Education in New York was found in contempt for not following through.
hudson v rowley 1982
Hudson v. Rowley (1982)
  • Supreme Court Decision
  • States need not provide additional services above and beyond those needed to adequately meet the child’s educational needs.
  • Sign-language interpreter not to be provided for a deaf student who is receiving an adequate education (based on school records) to meet her educational needs
larry p v wilson riles 1987
Larry P. v. Wilson Riles (1987)
  • 9th Circuit Court of Appeals
  • 15 years to resolve
  • Moratorium placed that all IQ testing for purposes of placement was not allowed. Moratorium was lifted on all but testing for mental retardation.
  • IQ tests cannot be used in California to place children in classes for mental retardation because of perceived racial discrimination on the tests.
plyler vs doe 1982
Plyler vs. Doe (1982)
  • Prohibit public schools from denying FAPE to a child regardless of immigrant status.
  • Undocumented students are required to attend school.
  • Schools are PROHIBITED from communicating with INS without a court order/ subpoena.
history parent s rights
History: Parent’s Rights
  • Before legislation & litigation many schools forbid students with disabilities from attending
  • Most early attempts to educate disabled children were from White parents, minority parents were still trying to get an equal education for their children.
  • Parental advocacy for their children took place in the form of litigation and lobbying
history minority parents
History: Minority Parents
  • Prior to desegregation, minority families were considered active in their children’s schools. Many felt unwelcome in their child’s new schools.
  • Minority parents advocated for their children to receive an equal education by arguing against segregation (intentional and de jure).
  • Many felt that this segregation continued by the overrepresentation of their children in SPED placement
group project nasp ethics
Group Project: NASP Ethics
  • Go to the ethics section of the NASP website.
    • As a group, determine which ethical guidelines are described that specifically apply to school psychologists.
  • Be prepared to present these to the class.
school culture educational policy institutional advocacy
School Culture, Educational Policy & Institutional Advocacy
  • Take a proactive stance to enhance the quality of services provided to all individuals
  • Work toward increasing institutional understanding and acceptance of culturally and linguistically diverse individuals
  • Inform and educate school staff about cultural and behavioral patterns of culturally and linguistically diverse populations
  • Families need to be informed of their rights and are meaningfully engaged in the discussions affecting their children.
school culture educational policy institutional advocacy1
School Culture, Educational Policy & Institutional Advocacy
  • Examine individual referrals w/in the context of the systemic patterns of how ethnically diverse students are treated at that school.
  • Rule out systematic factors as the cause of problems before doing an evaluation or intervention directly with the student.
  • Provide interventions to help schools that inappropriately identify diverse students.
  • Help develop primary interventions to aid all learners in the school.
  • Help link diverse families to the school.
psychoeducational assessment related issues
Psychoeducational Assessment & Related Issues
  • Assessment is a comprehensive process which
    • impact of socio-cultural, environmental, political, experiential and language-based factors
    • may or may not include standardized testing
  • Consider cultural sources of information about students and search for culture specific confirming data.
  • Acknowledge the impact of second language/culture acquisition on the cognitive and socio-emotional development
psychoeducational assessment related issues1
Psychoeducational Assessment & Related Issues
  • Psychologists have expertise in conducting informal and formal language assessments and in differentiating a language disorder from second language acquisition
  • Psychologists have expertise in assessing the student’s biculturalism
  • Psychologists incorporate cultural and linguistic information in written reports
psychoeducational assessment related issues2
Psychoeducational Assessment & Related Issues
  • Understand the limitations and pitfalls associated with the prescribed use of standardized instruments not normed or validated with the population being served.
  • Well versed in the psychometric properties of all instruments that they use.
  • Able to adapt existing assessment tools when necessary and report any deviations from standardization.
  • Keep abreast of new an better versions of tests devised for diverse students.
academic therapeutic and consultative interventions
Academic, Therapeutic and Consultative Interventions
  • Know research regarding the impact of cultural, ethnic and linguistic factors on the academic achievement of diverse students
  • Understand the needs of diverse children in terms of curriculum and instruction.
  • Develop expertise in multicultural counseling.
  • Demonstrate an awareness of an individual’s worldviews and sociopolitical experiences including the negative effects of racism, oppression and stereotyping.
academic therapeutic and consultative interventions1
Academic, Therapeutic and Consultative Interventions
  • Consider involvement of trained interpreters, community consultants, extended family members.
  • Implement culturally sensitive approaches that are researched and acceptable to the child or family
  • Demonstrate culturally sensitive verbal and nonverbal communication skills.
  • Aware of own cultural background and biases
  • Knowledge of minority family structures, hierarchies, values and beliefs.
academic therapeutic and consultative interventions2
Academic, Therapeutic and Consultative Interventions
  • Understand relocation and migration and its effect on children and families.
  • Understand the process of acquiring a second culture and its impact on the development and adjustment.
  • Understand the impact of poverty on physical and mental health.
  • Aware of different responses to interventions
  • Understand the specific coping skills and support systems available to culturally diverse children and families.
working with interpreters
Working with Interpreters
  • Psychologists seek the services of interpreters only when necessary and when other alternatives have been sought out but are not available.
  • Work with trained interpreters familiar with the student’s culture and regional area of origin.
  • Know how to train interpreters when needed.
  • Knowledge of the skills needed by qualified interpreters
  • Aware of problems inherent in the process of translation.
working with interpreters1
Working with Interpreters
  • Knowledge of the psychological impact of using interpreters during assessment and intervention activities.
  • Knowledge and skills in interviewing and assessing individuals through interpreters.
  • Examine data obtained through interpreters with extreme caution and acknowledge the limitations of such data.
  • Assessment results obtained through interpreters are described as such and are reported qualitatively.
  • Informed about quantitative and qualitative research techniques.
  • Consider the social, linguistic and cultural context in which research takes place
  • Psychologists work to eliminate bias when conducting research.
  • Insure that the informed consent of all research participants is secured and has been elicited in the language the family is most comfortable with.
  • Skilled in program evaluation to determine the appropriateness and adequacy of instructional programs specifically aimed at diverse youngsters.
  • Stereotypes are considered to be
    • Group concept of one social group about another
    • Often used in a negative or prejudicial sense
    • Frequently used to justify discriminatory behavior.
    • May express “folk wisdom” about social reality.
  • Stereotype production is based on:
    • Simplification
    • Exaggeration or distortion
    • Generalization
    • Presentation of cultural attributes as being 'natural'.

Wikipedia, 2006

cultural definitions
Cultural Definitions
  • Should be scientifically based.
  • Represent many (but probably not all).
  • Provide a general idea of a culture
    • History
    • Beliefs
    • Daily Lives
    • Norms
  • Are objectively determined and reported (neither positive or negative)
psychs need to know
Psychs Need to Know…
  • How families are organized in different cultures.
  • Educational systems in other locations.
  • What recent events may cause distress in a child or family.
  • Languages spoken by the child.
  • Gestures, greetings, etc.
  • Views toward healthcare or psych services.
  • Anything else on Div. 16 Guidelines
  • You can get much of the information that you need from Culture Grams (
  • At UNLV we access Culture Grams by:

  • Note: Not all that you need to know can be accessed here. Sometimes you will need alternate sources.
    • Natives from that Country
    • Current Newspapers
    • Literature Reviews, etc.
discussion project culturegrams
Scenario 1:

You have a female child from Peru

Scenario 2:

You have a male child from Saudi Arabia

Scenario 3:

You have a female child from Canada

Scenario 4:

You have a male child from Chad

Discussion Project: CultureGrams

Use at least one of these scenarios to discuss information

on CultureGrams in terms of psychological, family, and

educational issues.