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Tutorial Five. Skeletal System. Functions of the Skeleton . Support Framework for body. Prevents organs crushing each other. Protection Encloses delicate organs. Movement Enables locomotion. Muscle attachment For muscles to allow movement .

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tutorial five

Tutorial Five

Skeletal System

functions of the skeleton
Functions of the Skeleton

SupportFramework for body.

Prevents organs crushing each other.

Protection Encloses delicate organs.

MovementEnables locomotion.

Muscle attachmentFor muscles to allow movement.

StorageStores fat, calcium, phosphorous, sodium and potassium.

Blood cell formationIn bone marrow.

appendicular skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton
  • The appendicular skeleton includes all those bones not identified as components of the axial skeleton.
  • Colour the appendicular skeleton on page 52.
  • Then label the bones of the axial and appendicular and skeletons.
bones you need to be able to label label the skeleton on page51
Bones you need to be able to label(Label the skeleton on page51).
  • Fibula Carpals
  • Patella Tarsals
  • Femur Metacarpals
  • Mandible Metatarsals
  • Clavicle Tibia
  • Scapula Sternum
  • Ribs Humerus
  • Pelvis Intervertebral disc
  • Coccyx Cervical vertebrae
  • Radius Thoracic vertebrae
  • Cranium Lumbar vertebrae
  • Mandible Sacrum
  • Ulna Pubic symphysis
  • Phalanges(hands and feet)
slide7

The Skull (page 56)

When born the bone plates of a babies skull are slightly separated. In fact, where three bone meet there is a hole called fontanelle. These features enable the skull to compress during childbirth, making delivery easier. Over time the cranial plates move closer together and fuse to completely protect the brain. The bones of an adults skull are held together by fused bones called sutures.

Adult

Baby

the girdles page 56
The Girdles (page 56)

The pelvic and pectoral girdles provide attachment for the appendices. The pectoral girdle provides attachment for the upper limbs (arms), whilst the pelvic girdle provides attachment for the lower limbs (legs).

The pectoral girdle includes the scapula and clavicle. The clavicle pulls the scapula forward, holding it in place.

The pelvic girdle is bowl shaped with wide flat surfaces. This provides a large surface area for leg and abdominal muscle attachment.

slide9

The Limbs (page 57)

The upper limbs are primarily involved in manipulation of objects. The ulna and radius connections at proximal and distal joints (i.e. at the elbow and wrist joints) are reversed. This ‘crossing’ of the bones allows the radius to rotate around the ulna, creating an increased dexterity in the arm.

The main function of the lower limbs is locomotion. They carry the weight of the body and attachment for the large muscle groups involved in movement (walking, running etc.) The fibula in the lower leg runs parallel to the tibia, acting as a brace and providing extra support and muscle attachment.

The Hands and Feet (page 59)

The wrist contains a number of small bones that allow it a great range of motion. The thumbs ability to touch each finger (opposability) allows fine motor control and excellent manual dexterity.

the hands and feet page 59
The Hands and Feet (page 59)

The wrist contains a number of small bones that allow it a great range of motion. The thumbs ability to touch each finger (opposability) allows fine motor control and excellent manual dexterity.

The feet are responsible for transferring weight from heel through to toes during locomotion. The foot contains two arches to help with locomotion. The longitudinal arch runs the length of the foot and the transverse arch cuts across the foot. The arches act as shock absorbers as weight is transferred through the feet.

the vertebral column
The Vertebral Column

Functions of the vertebral column

  • Protect and support the spinal cord.
  • Provide attachment for muscles.
  • Attachment for ribs, girdles and cranium.
thoracic cavity
Thoracic Cavity
  • Normally 12 pairs of ribs.
  • 7 pairs of true ribs – attached to sternum.
  • 5 pairs of false ribs – not attached directly to the sternum.

(2 of these pairs are floating)