Transition Planning for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Families of Youth with Disabilities: Issues and Trends Tracey Williams University of Kansas email@example.com
Agenda • Introduction • Trends • Population trends • IDEA 2004 trends (RE: parent involvement) • Research trends • CLD families and transition • Issues in Transition Planning for CLD families • Challenges for CLD families • Where do we go from here? • Cultural reciprocity
I’ll Go First!!! Walter and Skyy
Audience Poll teachers government employee parents students family member with a disability individual/families not a native of U.S. other Introduction
Introduction What do we want for children with disabilities when they transition into adulthood?
CLD Population Trends 2000 Census suggested that 40% of school populations are CLD and is projected to increase 57% by 2050 (Hollins & Guzman, 2006).
CLD Population Trends The U.S. Census in 2006 indicated that in the public school system 38 % of the children are CLD, which is a 7% increase since 2000 (Landmark, Zhang, & Montoya, 2007).
CLD Population Trends More specifically, the population of Hispanic children increased from 9% to 19% between the years 1980-2000, and this rate is expected to rise to 24% by 2020 (Child Trend Data Bank, 2003).
CLD Population Trends Children from whom English is a second language (ESL) has more than doubled from 1.5 million in 1985 to 3.2 million in 1995 and will continue to grow (Banks, et al., 2005).
CLD Population Trends As of May 2006 Hispanics (at 42.7 million) continue to be the largest minority group as well as the fastest-growing group—gaining 3.3 percent in population, followed by: - Blacks (39.7 million) - Asians (14.4 million) - American Indians/Alaska natives (4.5 million) - Native Hawaiians/other Pacific Islanders (990,000) http://www.prb.org/Articles/2006/IntheNewsUSPopulationIsNowOneThirdMinority.aspx?p=1
IDEA 2004 Trends • The IEP meeting must include the parent and that students must be invited to attend. • The role and responsibility of parents should be strengthened to create more effective education.
IDEA 2004 Trends • The local education agency (LEA) should support parent partnerships. • The LEA should assist parents in developing the knowledge to participate in their child’s educational development (including transition services)
IDEA 2004 Trends • LEA should draw particular attention to parents who have limited access to resources because of “economic, cultural or linguistic barriers”. • The LEA must ensure that the parents understand the happenings of the IEP meeting(e.g., interpreter, native language).
Culture in Transition What does culture mean to you? Share your first thoughts.
Culture in Transition Culture is defined as the shared norms, values, beliefs, behaviors, traditions, ideals, and rules that are followed by a group of people over time (Timm, 1996; Lim, 2001).
Culture in Transition Outcomes for students with disabilities are most successful when IEP planning involves the family and considers the family’s cultural values and beliefs. (Morningstar, Kleinhammer-Tramil, & Lattin, 1999; Wehmeyer, Morningstar, & Husted, 1999; Artiles, Trent, & Palmer, 2004; Kim & Morningstar, 2005)
Culture in Transition Understanding a family’s cultural norm helps professionals connect with families. (Lynch & Hanson, 2004; Combes & Durodoye, 2006). ;
Culture in Transition Understanding a family’s cultural norm influences how the family interprets their: • involvement in planning • satisfaction in planning • roles and responsibilities in planning (Geenen, Powers, & Lopez-Vasquez, 2001). ;
Culture in Transition For example: What do we know about self-determination?
Culture in Transition Zhang and Benz (2006) in an extensive review of literature regarding self-determination of culturally diverse students with disabilities, found: • Asian, Latino, and Native American reject the self-determination, as the Western culture knows it. • These particular cultures make decisions and goals by considering their family needs first then their own. • This practice is said to “bring honor to the family” (page 4). ;
Culture in Transition How do you interpret good family involvement?
Culture in Transition We know parent involvement in transition has a positive impact on: • post-school outcomes of employment • post-secondary education • independent living • academic achievement (Morningstar, Turnbull, & Turnbull, 1995; Wehmeyer, Morningstar, & Husted, 1999; Lindstrom, Doren and Benz, 2004; Timmons, Whitney-Thomas, McIntyre, Butterworth, & Allen, 2004; Wandry & Pleet, 2004; Lindstrom, Doren, Metheny, Johnson, & Zane, 2007)
Culture in Transition Geenen, Powers, and Lopez-Vasquez (2001) surveyed 308 CLD parents (i.e., African-American, 34 Hispanic- Americans, 31 Native American) , 87 European American families, and 52 professionals regarding their perceived levels of family involvement in transition activities. Results: • All believed family involvement was important • CLD families were more involved at home (e.g., post-secondary activities, transportation, personal care, and culture). • European American families placed emphasis on school based transition activities. • The professionals felt that the CLD families were less involved What type of involvement do you think the professionals placed more value in? (94% were European-American)
Issues During Transition Planning for CLD Families What are some of the challenges that impact CLD parent involvement in transition?
CLDIssues in Transition CLD parent involvement in transition planning is considerably lower than that of European American families because of particular challenges such as: - poverty/ low income - language - limited resources/support - different beliefs about disabilities - insufficient school support (Lynch & Stein, 1987; Blue-Banning, Turnbull, & Pereira, 2002; Zhang & Bennett, 2003)
Challenges for CLD Families • CLD families, particularly those who are low-income, are less likely to: • Participate in IEP planning meetings • Limited resources • Limited time (Boone, 1992; Artiles, Trent & Palmer, 2004) 2. CLD families have language barriers, which causes: • Inequity in services • Difficulty understanding technical terminology • Difficulty understanding special education laws and regulations (Lynch & Stein, 1987; Kim & Morningstar, 2005)
Challenges for CLD Families 3. CLD families have limited social support, which negatively impact: • post-secondary outcomes in youth and young adults with disabilities • impede performance in adult life (Morningstar, Turnbull, Turnbull and Rutherford, 1995; Navarrete & White, 1994). 4. CLD families have limited school support, which impact: • shared information and knowledge about school procedure and resources (Kim & Morningstar, 2005)
Challenges for CLD Youth 5. CLD families may have different beliefs about disability as a result: • Educators can cause offense • Differences in expectations regarding self-determination, independence, and community participation 6. CLD families feel professionals’ attitudes are challenges, which can result in • Lack of trust
Challenges for CLD Families For Example: Bui and Turnbull (2003) synthesized literature regarding Asian American families who have children with disabilities to compare their beliefswith person- centered planning (PCP) techniques. Results: • Different view of disability • caused by bad spirits of negative behaviors of the past opposed to “a natural part of the human experience” (IDEA 2004) • Different expectations regarding self-determination, independence, and community participation when their child transitions from school to adult life.
CLDIssues in Transition CLD students’ outcomes • White youth with disabilities score from 7 to 13 standard points higher on academic achievement measures than African-American, Hispanic, or those with other racial/ethic backgrounds. • White youth exceeded African American youth in living independently during early years after high school • Only white youth with disabilities showed significant increase in • Post-secondary enrollment • Pursuit of employment • Earnings • Volunteer and community service activities National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS2) 2005
Where do we go from here? How do we begin making a difference? Cultural Reciprocity
Where do we go from here? Cultural Reciprocity The awareness of cultural differences, then, is the recognition that the way we act and what we believe can be different than how other people act or what they believe. (Kalyanpur & Harry, 1999)
Cultural Reciprocity 3 levels of cultural awareness: Overt- recognition of obvious differences (e.g., dress, race, language) Covert- recognition of differences that are not obvious by outward signs (e.g., communication styles, behaviors) that requires more observation or contact to understand. Subtle- recognition of embedded values and beliefs that define who we are and make us unique
Cultural Reciprocity Culture Reciprocity is trying to get us from overt professionals to subtle professionals.
Cultural Reciprocity 4 steps to help you work with CLD families Posture of Culture Reciprocity • Identify the cultural values that are embedded in your interpretation of the student’s difficulty or in the recommendation of service. For example: Why do you expect Johnny to live independently from his family?
Posture of Culture Reciprocity 2. Find out if the family recognizes and values those same beliefs and values and how they may differ. For example: Do all families embrace key activities in transition (e.g., self-determination, PCP)?
Cultural Reciprocity Posture of Culture Reciprocity 3. Acknowledge and respect all cultures and explain the basis for your professional belief. For example: Do we explain our view of transition?
Cultural Reciprocity Posture of Culture Reciprocity 4. Through discussion and collaboration, determine the most effective way to adapt your professional interpretations and recommendations to the value system of the family. For example: Do we feel obligated to adapt transition planning to meet the cultural value system of the family?