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Please turn in your Unit 9 Test Corrections on the table by the door. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Please turn in your Unit 9 Test Corrections on the table by the door. Staple your corrections to the back of your test. If you have not yet selected a Learning Objective for the PowerPoint assignment, please see me.  Due on April 24 th.

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slide1

Please turn in your Unit 9 Test Corrections on the table by the door.

Staple your corrections to the back of your test.

If you have not yet selected a Learning Objective for the PowerPoint assignment, please see me.

 Due on April 24th

slide3

Algae also

Chapter 29 Plant Diversity

  • What are the characteristics of plants?
    • Photosynthetic autotrophs
    • Cellulose in cell walls
    • Starch as storage polysaccharide
    • PROBLEM – light, CO2 & air are above ground
    • - water & minerals are below ground
    • SOLUTION – evolution of specialized structures
  • What adaptations do plants have for survival on land?
    • Stomata – pores used for gas exchange
    • Roots – absorb water & minerals from underground
    • Apical meristems – tips of shoots & roots where growth occurs
    • Cuticle – waxy covering to prevent water loss thru leaves
    • Jacketed gametangia – gamete producing organ with protective jacket of cells to prevent dehydration
    • Sporopollenin – polymer that formed around exposed zygotes & forms walls of plant spores preventing dehydration
    • Lignin – structural polymer that provides strength for woody tissues of vascular plants
slide4

Haploid multicellular

organism (gametophyte)

Mitosis

Mitosis

n

n

n

n

n

Spores

Gametes

MEIOSIS

FERTILIZATION

2n

2n

Zygote

Mitosis

Diploid multicellular

organism (sporophyte)

Alternation of generations: a generalized scheme

Chapter 29 Plant Diversity

  • What are the characteristics of plants?
  • What adaptations do plants have for survival on land?
    • Stomata – pores used for gas exchange
    • Roots – absorb water & minerals from underground
    • Apical meristems – tips of shoots & roots where growth occurs
    • Cuticle – waxy covering to prevent water loss thru leaves
    • Jacketed gametangia – gamete producing organ with protective jacket of cells to prevent dehydration
    • Sporopollenin – polymer that formed around exposed zygotes & forms walls of plant spores preventing dehydration
    • Lignin – structural polymer that provides strength for woody tissues
  • Describe alternation of generations
    • Alternates between sexual
    • & asexual reproduction
    • Gametophyte (n) make gametes
    • by mitosis
    • Sporophyte (2n) makes spores
    • by meiosis
slide6

30 nm

Chapter 29 Plant Diversity

  • What are the characteristics of plants?
  • What adaptations do plants have for survival on land?
  • Describe alternation of generations
  • What is the evidence that plants evolved from charophytes (green algae)?
    • rose-shaped complexes for making cellulose
      • Proteins in the plasma membrane that make cellulose microfibrils
      • Linear arrays found in non-charophytes
      • Similar %age of cellulose found in plants & charophytes
slide7

Chapter 29 Plant Diversity

  • What are the characteristics of plants?
  • What adaptations do plants have for survival on land?
  • Describe alternation of generations
  • What is the evidence that plants evolved from charophytes (green algae)? Similarities??
    • rose-shaped complexes for making cellulose
      • Proteins in the plasma membrane that make cellulose microfibrils
      • Linear arrays found in non-charophytes
      • Similar %age of cellulose found in plants & charophytes
    • Peroxisome enzymes
    • Sperm structure – flagella
    • Formation of phragmoplast
      • Phragmoplast – an alignment of cytoskeletal elements & Golgi-derived vesicles at a dividing cell’s midline
      • Used in making cell plates during cell division
    • Genetic evidence
      • “Deep Green” Project
      • Nuclear & chloroplast genes have similar DNA
slide8

Chapter 29 Plant Diversity

  • What are the characteristics of plants?
  • What adaptations do plants have for survival on land?
  • Describe alternation of generations
  • What is the evidence that plants evolved from charophytes (green algae)?
  • How did plants evolve from green algae?
    • Natural selection
    • Algae best suited genetically for a drier climate (low water in a lake) could reproduce & pass along those genes to create a new population of better adapted “algae”
  • What were the highlights/adaptations of plant evolution?
    • Movement to land led to Bryophytes (mosses & worts)
      • Tougher spores (sporopollenin)
      • Jacketed gametangia
    • Vascular tissue (ferns)
      • Cells joined to transport water & nutrients
      • Lacked seeds
    • Development of seeds (Gymnosperms)
      • More protection of embryo
      • Embryo w/ food
    • Development of flowers (Angiosperms)
      • Complex reproductive structure
figure 29 7 highlights of plant evolution

Land plants

Vascular plants

Bryophytes

(nonvascular plants)

Seedless vascular plants

Seed plants

Mosses

Liverworts

Hornworts

Angiosperms

Gymnosperms

Charophyceans

Pterophytes

(ferns, horsetails, whisk ferns)

Lycophytes

(club mosses, spike mosses, quillworts)

Origin of seed plants

(about 360 mya)

Origin of vascular

plants (about 420 mya)

Origin of land plants

(about 475 mya)

Ancestral

green alga

Figure 29.7 Highlights of plant evolution
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