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Strategic environmental assessment of national water plan nepal by ram b khadka

Nepal: An Introduction Nepal


Nepal is theHimalayan Kingdom known as the Land of the Mt. Everest and the birthplace of Lord Buddha. The country is situated in South Asia, bordered on the north by China and on the south, west and east by India.

Strategic environmental assessment of national water plan nepal by ram b khadka

Nepal: General Information Nepal

Topographical Features:

Nepal is a mountainous country with the Himalayan belt in the north, the hilly region and fertile valleys in the Middle and the narrow strip of plain in the South, allrunning parallel to each other from East to West.


The country has diverse climatic conditions. It is generally cold in the mountainous region, mild weather in the hills, and warm in the plains.

Rainfall:1,500 -2,500mm (average)

Capital: Kathmandu, a historical city with rich cultural heritage is Nepal's capital with 1.5 million population.

Background information
Background information Nepal

  • 6000 Rivers, mostly

    trans-Himalayan and

    snow –fed

  • Drain 194,471 km2

  • 225 billion cubic liters of water is available


  • 15 billion cubic liters of water have been

    utilized so far

Background information1
Background information Nepal

  • 72 percent of population have an access to water supply

  • 25 percent have access to sanitation facility

  • 0.76 million ha of agriculture land have been irrigated

  • Hydropower development potential is 83000MW, at present only 619MW has been generated.

Background information2
Background information Nepal

  • Water is one of the major natural resources for economic development

  • Inspite of many efforts made in the past water resource development is slow,

  • In order to make water resource development comprehensive, systematized and accelerate the process of development, Government of Nepal issued Water Resource Strategy in 2002.

Water resource strategy wrs for nepal
Water Resource Strategy (WRS) for Nepal Nepal

WRS contains following 10 action programs:

  • management water-Induced disaster

  • management of watershed and aquatic ecosystem

  • domestic water supply and sanitation

  • Irrigation facilities for agriculture

  • development of hydropower for electricity

  • water-based cultural, recreational, and eco-tourism activities

  • amendment the existing water resource policy and legal framework

  • water-related information systems

  • development of regional and bi-lateral co-operation and

  • revision and modification of exsisting institutional procedural


National water plan for nepal nwp
National Water Plan for Nepal Nepal(NWP)

In order to operationalize WRS of Nepal, a

National Water Plan was developed and

endorsed by the government (2005).The

following are the action programs contained

in the NWP

The implementation of NWP activities is to

take place within the time frame of 5,15 and

20 years.

National water plan nwp contd
National Water Plan (NWP) NepalContd.

  • Management of major types of water induced disasters

  • Improvement of water Quality and watersheds

  • Provide safe drinking water to 100% people of Nepal

  • Provide irrigation facilities to 100% arable land

National water plan nwp contd1
National Water Plan (NWP) NepalContd.

  • Develop 4000MW of hydropower

  • Provide water to 100% industry, navigation and tourism

  • Enhance inland fisheries and increase the production to 87000 MT per year

  • Establish hydrometric stations to 370 at strategic places and disseminate the information

National water plan nwp contd2
National Water Plan (NWP) NepalContd

  • Establish regional cooperation for water sharing fully

  • Revise and refine the existing legal framework, develop policies, guidelines, norms and standards.

  • Restructure administrative institutions revise and improve administrative mechanism.

Application of sea in nwp
Application of SEA in NWP Nepal

  • No legal requirement for SEA in Nepal

  • Water Energy Commission of Nepal decided to apply SEA in NWP voluntarily to make plan environmentally sound and sustainable.

  • SEA was carried out based on secondary sources of Information and an extensive public consultation with some field verification.

  • Followed screening, scoping, baseline information collection, impact identification and prediction, mitigation measures and environmental management plan.

Application of sea in nwp1
Application of SEA in NWP Nepal

  • Stakeholders consultation at different stages

  • Use of internationally recognized checklist, interaction matrix, and Impact summary matrix (Saddler and Verheem, 1996).

  • Issues identified in scoping were classified into i physical, ii biological iii socio-economic/cultural and iv legal and institutional components.

Issue analysis and prediction
Issue Analysis and Prediction Nepal

NWP was examined whether,

  • Issues were addressed in NWP

  • Assessment of the status of issues included

  • Mitigation measures are provided

    Physical Issues

  • Downstream release of water, submerging

    of large amount of farmland, water logging, extraction of ground water-lowering of water level

  • Formation of new flood plain

  • Water pollution due to chemical fertilizer and pesticides

  • No Measures are mentioned in policies, guidelines and no standards

Issue analysis and prediction1
Issue Analysis and Prediction Nepal

Biological Issues: effect on;

  • Forest, flora, animals both aquatic and


  • Protected areas, wild animal habitat,

  • Destruction of biodiversity

  • Effect on fish and fisheries

  • Production of Green House Gas (GHG)

  • Downstream Pollution

Issue analysis and prediction2
Issue Analysis and Prediction Nepal

Socio-Economic/Cultural Issue

  • employment opportunity,

  • local market development,

  • reduced drudgery in women and children,

  • skilled manpower development,

  • gender,

  • enhancement of local organizations.

  • land acquisition,

  • displacement, and resettlement,

  • cultural malpractices, and pressure on social services

Issue analysis and prediction3
Issue Analysis and Prediction Nepal

Legal and Institutional Component

Policy conflict

No coordination

Improper legal framework ineffective in


No water quality standards, no code of conduct,

No waste water treatment commitment

The private sector projects are operating well

The government sector projects do not function

properly because of the financial limitation imposed

by finance act

No comprehensive legislation

Mitigation measures alternative options
Mitigation Measures /Alternative Options Nepal

Mitigation measures at strategic level can


  • rewriting the strategic actions to minimize negative environmental effects and enhance the beneficial one,

  • establishing management guidelines for implementing strategic action,

  • shifting responsibility to lower tier of strategic action or in project level, and

  • no action alternative.

Mitigation measures alternative options1
Mitigation Measures /Alternative Options Nepal

Physical Components

  • Maintaining water flow down stream : release of 10% dry period flow plus existing water requirement in downstream.

  • Downstream Water Pollution and

    Groundwater Quality ; Standards and policy guidelines

  • Use of Inundated Upland Fields and Forest

  • Cloud Burst, Glacial Lake Outburst Flood,

  • and Landslide Dam Flood; Minimization

  • Erosions, Landslides, and Sedimentation: minimization

  • Lowering of Ground Water ;Policy guidelines

  • Water logging and Soil Modification;Policy guidelines

Mitigation measures alternative options2
Mitigation Measures /Alternative Options Nepal

Forest Vegetation and Wild animals;

  • Forest and Vegetation; Policy guidelines and standards

  • Wildlife and Biodiversity;

  • Protected Areas;

  • Aquatic flora and Fauna

Mitigation measures alternative options3
Mitigation Measures /Alternative Options Nepal

Socio-economic and Cultural Issues ;Mostly to be addressed by issuing of policy guidelines, directives, standards, and implementation guidelines

  • Employment Opportunities;

  • Economic Activities

  • Local Market Development Market

  • Skilled manpower development;

  • Reduce Drudgery to Women and Children

  • Cultural Practice;

  • Land Acquisition, Displacement and Resettlement

  • Pressure on Social Service

  • Gender Issue

Mitigation measures alternative options4
Mitigation Measures /Alternative Options Nepal

Legal and Institutional Component

  • Comprehensive National Water Resource Policy

  • Action Plans for Water resource and Environment Laws

  • Legal Regime for Ground Water Management

  • Pollution Standards for Enforcement of Environment

  • Protection Act

  • Strengthen Community-Based Water User Organizations

Environmental management plan emp
Environmental Management Plan (EMP) Nepal

  • rewriting, strategy and Action Plans, development of policy guidelines for implementation of directives to project-level implementations are the key strategic mitigation prescriptions.

  • EMP of National Water Plan should examine whether the issues are addressed and the corresponding gaps are identified.

  • In SEA of NWP strategic EMP parameters on physical, biological, socio-economic, and cultural components of the environment have been identified and recommendation should be made to apply in project level activities

  • The second part in EMP is to monitor the implementation of mitigation prescriptions. Monitoring such as (i) baseline (ii) impact and (iii) compliance monitoring are applicable to strategic actions.

Conclusion and recommendation
Conclusion and Recommendation Nepal

Analysis has been carried out for the consideration of in the upper

tier of decision-making.

The key environmental issues identified were:

  • downstream release of water and water use right,

  • inundation,

  • downstream and ground water pollution,

  • issues on the loss of forests and wildlife, both aquatic and terrestrial,

  • issues on boom and bust cycle related to workforce,

  • land acquisition displacement and resettlement, and

  • ineffective environmental laws, regulations, and standards and institutions related to water resource development.

  • Issues on human resource development and employment opportunity.

Conclusion and recommendation1
Conclusion and Recommendation Nepal

Minimization of the adverse issues and enhancement of

beneficial issues of NWP implementation at the Strategic

Level are:

  • revising and modification of existing system of legal


  • revising and writing of water resource development policies, Plans and programs, and

  • Issuing policy guidelines, standards, norms, reforming existing institutional and procedural aspects, etc.