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Power and Its Possessors. Can Social Order be Maintained without Power?. Human Nature is a source of order – John Locke Human Reasonableness – Natural Law - anarchy A Natural Harmony of Interest – Classical Liberalism – Economic Order – U.S. Constitution Custom, Habit, Tradition – Edmund Burke

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can social order be maintained without power
Can Social Order be Maintained without Power?
  • Human Nature is a source of order – John Locke Human Reasonableness – Natural Law - anarchy
  • A Natural Harmony of Interest – Classical Liberalism – Economic Order – U.S. Constitution
  • Custom, Habit, Tradition – Edmund Burke
  • Without Spontaneous Order totalitarianism is inevitable
  • Machiavelli – Order is achieved by the sagacity of rulers
who should rule
Who Should Rule?
  • Anyone – Hobbes
  • No one – Anarchists
  • Can some achieve virtues not achievable by the majority? Plato (the few) and Rousseau (the many)
  • A mixture of democracy and aristocracy – Aristotle
  • Plato – Philosophers
  • Marx – the proletariat
  • Lenin – the communist party
if the people rule should they do so themselves or through representatives
If the People Rule, Should They Do So Themselves or through Representatives?
  • The representative system makes it possible, while allowing the people to have the final word, to empower those who stand out for their intelligence, experience, and interest in politics.
  • Representatives can devote all of their time to government, whereas the people as a whole cannot.
  • A representative body provides better opportunities for leisured, unemotional deliberation than does a great popular assembly
  • Direct democracy is workable only in polities that are very small in population
is it good to have power
Is It Good to Have Power?
  • Politics in a good state allows us to realize our fullest human potential – Aristotle
  • Avoid politics, “live unknown” – Epicurus
  • A necessary duty - Stoics
why obey
Why Obey?
  • To possess power seems at least to be honorable and glorious
  • To be under power seem appear to be degrading
  • Why accept a position of subservience?
  • Divine right of kings
  • Consent - Locke
  • The General Will – Rousseau
  • The question of revolution