Think of time that you have been exceptionally motivated • What was the context of the behavior? • Think of as many details as possible… • Why were you so motivated at this time?
Think of a time when you were exceptionally unmotivated • What was the context of this behavior? • Think of as many details as possible… • Why were you so unmotivated? • What could have made you more likely to be motivated?
Five theories • 1) Hedonic principle: experience pleasure/avoid pain • Very Freudian/psychoanalytic • Thanatos/Eros
Five Theories • 2) Instinct Theory—evolutionary/innate behavior • Rooting instinct
Five theories • 3) Drive Theory –we are motivated to reduce a drive to return to homeostasis...i.e., food, sex, temperature • Hull’s drive reduction theory • What is NOT explained by this theory?
Watching sad movies • Climbing mountains • Attending college • Read books • Etc... • 8A-3
Five Theories • 4) Arousal Theory—we are driven to experience stimulation—even if we are not hungry, have no desire to mate, and are perfectly physiologically content....we still do stuff.
Five theories • 5) Humanistic Theory: humans strive to obtain self-actualization • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • 8A-5
Sports Psychology 5 Key Elements for increased performance
1) Goal Setting • Why? • DIRECTION • FEEDBACK • SUPPORT • Why NOT? • Fear of Failure • Handout 8A-13 • Results in a change in behavior • Training is more productive • Competitive behavior is more focused • Preparation becomes more focused
Relaxation • Anxiety often interferes with performance • Focus negative thoughts toward something else • Preserves energy • Methods: biofeedback, diaphragmatic breathing, mindfulness, meditation, progressive muscle relaxation.
Self-talk • We have a tendency to have negative, unhealthy thought patterns • Self-talk is used to reframe situations
Imagery • Vivid recall of the positive • Remembering mistakes and correcting them with imagination • Counting in your head to regain focus
Concentration • Do nothing for 1 minute… • Preventing distractions • Directs attention to task
Cognitive Factors in Motivation • Expectations • Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation • Locus of Control • Explanatory behaviors • Learned Helplessness
Power of Expectations • How do expectations of myself and other impact my motivation to achieve a goal? • Reading: “What you expect is what you get” • How can you apply scientific findings to your own experience? • What are the main ideas in psychological research?
Instrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation • Instrinsic • Internal • Motivated by personal rewards • "Practice“ • 10,000 hours excerpt • Extrinsic • Motivated by external factors • i.e., grades, trophies, recognition, titles, etc…
Locus of Control • Internal • Reading: 40 Studies • Sense of personal action • Have the capacity to influence events • External • Sense of helplessness • Good things are not tied to behavior • Pawns of fate • Believe in ability to influence events
Explanatory Behaviors • ANSIE SCALE • Global/Specific • Stable/Unstable • Internal/External
Learned Helplessness • 40 Study—Seligman