The case for a new acronym ESAP.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Increasingly English is being used as the teaching medium for BusinessStudies, Medicine, Engineering etc at Higher Education and Universitylevels. This presents interesting challenges for the English teacherfaced with students who are not interested in learning English for its ownsake, but who are concerned to have sufficient command of English to help themprogress in their chosen careers. General English is being replaced byEnglish for Specific Purposes but within an atmosphere of English forAcademic Purposes. How can this best be done?
Language teachers lack the expertise and confidence to teach subject specific conventions and content
Skills and language across a range of disciplines remain the same
Level driven: the main focus is on what a student can and cannot do now.
Student motives are varied and general. They may be interested in the language or want to enjoy the global community.
When English is taught, it should include:
• current specific needs
• wider needs (transferable skills and
• acknowledgement of future needs
“We’ve been learning English for 6 years and
we’re still doing the verb to be.”
(Lack of interest / progression)
“I’d like more time to speak and practise the
language. I forget it straight after the lesson.”
“Different teachers tell us different things.
(Lack of faith in the teacher – or is it the book?)
Students are generally goal-orientated.
Students might not know what they need, but they do know what they don’t need.
Our materials and methods should reflect this.
• Discourse structures and vocabulary
spanning all academic fields
• General skills to help decode and
construct text in appropriate
i.e., Bottom Up skills
Themes based on areas of human knowledge
Listening: to lectures
Speaking: seminars, tutorials
Reading: for research
Writing: essays, assignments
Listening and taking notes
but there is no simple …
In the next two lectures, we’re...
to look at theories of …
This week, I’m going to talk...
theories from Ancient…
Next, theories from …
theory from a Russian scientist, …
...agree about learning. However...
(contrary view)How do we learn?
How do we learn?
This seems like a simple …
but there is no simple …
In the next two lectures, we’re …
… to look at theories of …
I’m going to talk about …
… from Ancient …
Next, theories from …
A Russian scientist, …
… agree about learning. However
Speaking from research
Reading for research
Writing in academic genres
analytical not impressionistic
objective not subjective
intellectual not emotional
serious not conversational
impersonal not personal
formal not colloquial
audience, purpose, content
information from research, knowledge, opinion
appropriate writing plan
writing for the writer – cohesion
writing for the reader – coherence
75% - 85% of EAP is in …
… the present (including passives)
10% - 15% of EAP is in …
… the past (including passives)
5% - 10% of EAP uses …
(Source: Various inc. Longman Grammar of Written and Spoken English)
90% of EAP is in the simple aspect
7% of EAP is in the perfect aspect
3% of EAP is in the progressive aspect
0.5% of EAP is in the perfect progressive aspect
(Source: Longman Grammar of Written and Spoken English)
the complex noun phrase
- different skills, conventions, lexis and register
TOP DOWN SKILLS
to use specific information from the field to
check and develop arguments and theories
Building background knowledge
English for Specific Academic Purposes
• What is the discipline?
• What are its branches?
• What does a practitioner do?
• What is the history of the discipline?
• Who are the great people in the discipline – biography?
• What are the great works in the discipline – references?
• What are the basic principles / knowledge in the discipline?
• What are the current issues?
• What are the contentious issues?
• Are there any Health and Safety issues (if relevant)?
• How do you distinguish fact from opinion in the discipline?
• What might the future hold?
Disciplines see reality in different ways
Humanities & social sciences
Analysing & synthesizing from
Science and technology
Describing procedures, defining
procedures, planning solutions
Common core ignores multiple meanings
Consist means ‘stay the same’ in the social sciences and ‘composed of’ in the sciences
Volume means “book’ in applied linguistics and ‘quantity’ in biology
Abstract means ‘remove’ in engineering and ‘theoretical’ in social sciences
Verbs which refer to writing activities: discuss, hypothesize, suggest, argue
Engineers and scientists:
Verbs which refer to research activities: observe, discover, show, analyse, etc
Applied Linguistics 4.5
Electrical engineering 3.3
Mechanical engineering 1.0
App Ling 37.2
Mech Eng 19.8
Elec Eng 21.6
Citations per 1000 words
Applied Linguistics 10.8
Electronic Engineering 8.4
Mechanical Engineering 7.3
Use target-language authentic texts
Encourage critical thinking
Use authentic models
Use expert informants
S What we teach in any kind of content based course is not the content itself but some form of the discourse of that content.
ESAP should equip students with the vocabulary and skills they need to enable them to study their chosen discipline in the most effective way.