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9/6/2011. When discussing Anatomy & Physiology, it is important to “start small and work your way up”. Molecular and Cellular levels are first, what do you think are the next 3 levels based on that concept?. Chapter 6. Anatomy and Physiology.

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9 6 2011
  • When discussing Anatomy & Physiology, it is important to “start small and work your way up”. Molecular and Cellular levels are first, what do you think are the next

3 levels based on that concept?

chapter 6

Chapter 6




upon completing this chapter you will be able to
Upon completing this chapter, you will be able to:
  • Define elements of the human body
  • Understand directional terms and body planes
  • Identify organs of all body systems
  • Compare diseases and disorders related to the body systems
what is the smallest element in the body
What is the smallest element in the body?
  • The CELL!
  • Varies in size, shape, and function
  • They need food, water, and oxygen
  • Basic structures:
    • Cell membrane- outer covering, holds substance inside and maintains shape
    • Nucleus- central portion of each cell. Directs cell’s activities and contains chromosomes (bearers of genes) which are made up of DNA
      • Genes carry inherited traits (eye/hair color, height, diseases and gender)
    • All cells have a nucleus except red blood cells (RBC)= enucleated
    • Cytoplasm surrounds nucleus and performs work (reproduction and movement)
cell types
Cell Types
  • All cell types are different
  • Their shape / function change to fit specific needs
    • Nerve Cells: have long, thin extensions that transmit nerve impulses over a distance
    • Epithelial Cells: thin, flat, and tightly packed to form protective layer over underlying cells
    • Muscle Cells: slender rods that attach at the ends of structures that they move
  • (Groups of cells that work

together to perform the same task)

  • There are 4 types
    • Connective Tissue: holds body parts together and connects them such as bones, ligaments, tendons
    • Epithelial Tissue: covers internal and external body surfaces (skin, linings of internal organs)
    • Muscle Tissue: expands and contracts to allow for bodily movement
    • Nervous Tissue: carries messages from all parts of the body to and from the brain and spinal cord
9 7 11
  • What does anatomy and physiology mean to you? What do you think you will gain from this chapter?
  • Groups of tissue that work together to perform a specific function
  • Ex: Kidneys, which maintain water and salt balance in the blood
  • Ex: Stomach, which breaks down food into substances that the circulatory system can transport throughout the body as nourishment for its cells
  • Groups of organs working

together to perform one of the body’s major functions

  • Systems have separate/distinct functions but rely on one another to perform their tasks
  • Respiratory: consists of lungs & airways.
    • Performs respiration, process which supplies the body with a constant supply of oxygen
  • Cardiovascular: consists of heart & blood vessels
    • Pumps and transports blood throughout the body
systems cont
Systems Cont…
  • Skeletal: consists of bones.
    • supports & protects the body and is the body’s framework. Without bones, we would be a shapeless mass
  • Muscular: consists of muscles and cartilage
    • Provides bodily movement
  • Nervous: consists of brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves
    • Regulates most body activities and sends/receives messages from sensory organs
systems cont1
Systems Cont…
  • Endocrine: consists of the glands
    • Secretes hormones for the regulation of many of the body’s activities
  • Sensory: consists of the eyes, ears, and parts of other systems
    • Related to the 5 senses
  • Digestive: consists of all organs of digestion, absorption, and elimination of waste
    • Necessary for normal intake of food/water
systems cont2
Systems Cont…
  • Urinary: consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra
    • Eliminates metabolic waste, helps to maintain acid-base and water-salt balance, helps regulate blood pressure
  • Integumentary: consists of skin, and accessory structures which are hair, nails, sweat glands, & oil glands
    • Skin is largest organ and serves to cover and protect our body
systems cont3
Systems Cont…
  • Lymphatic and immune: consist of the lymph, glands of the lymphatic system, lymphatic vessels, and nonspecific and specific defenses of the immune system
    • Help protect the body from infection and disease
  • Reproductive: female consists of the ovaries, vagina, fallopian tubes, uterus, and mammary glands/breasts. Male consists of testes, penis, prostate gland, vas deferens, and seminal vesicles
    • Controls reproduction and heredity
september 8 2011
September 8, 2011
  • What is more important?

That a health care professional that works with children be knowledgeable about anatomy and physiology or one who works with adults? Why?

  • 6 Senses Article
  • Body Systems Review
  • Body Systems Activity
  • Body Systems Video
q o d 9 9 11
Q.O.D. - 9/9/11
  • Without using your notes/textbook…name at least one fact about “your body system”(the one you researched yesterday).
    • Don’t just say “bones are in the skeletal system”.
  • http://www.usmagazine.com/stylebeauty/news/model-agency-ali-lohan-has-not-had-any-surgery-201189
  • http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=FACE688E-E1F3-4156-9865-55837EF38042&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US
9 12 2011
  • How does anatomy relate to the profession you think you may be interested in? How will it help you?
body cavities
Body Cavities
  • There are 2 main cavities
  • Dorsal Cavity: on the back side of the body.
    • Is divided into the cranial cavity which holds the brain and the spinal cavity which holds the spinal cord
  • Ventral Cavity: on front side of body
    • Is separated into 2 parts by a muscle called the diaphragm.
    • Above diaphragm is the thoracic cavity which holds heart, lungs, major blood vessels
    • Below diaphragm is the abdominal cavity which holds the organs of the digestive and urinary systems
    • Bottom portion of abdominal cavity is pelvic cavity which holds the reproductive system
directional terms
Directional Terms
  • Deep: through the surface (deep cut)
  • Superficial: on or near the surface (scratch)
  • Proximal: near point of attachment to trunk (proximal end of thighbone joins hipbone)
  • Distal: away from the point of attachment to the trunk (distal end of thighbone joins the knee bone)
  • Supine: lying on one’s spine facing upward
  • Prone: lying on one’s stomach facing downward
planes of the body
Planes of the body
  • 3 imaginary planes divide the body and cut through the body in different sections
  • Sagittal plane: divides the body into 2 parts, right and left (equally: the midsagittal plane)
  • Frontal or coronal plane: divides the body into anterior and posterior
  • Transverse plane: divides body horizontally into a top, or superior part, and a bottom, or inferior part.



regions of the abdominal cavity
Regions of the Abdominal Cavity
  • Large cavity divided into

9 regions to describe the

location of organs,

injuries, or pain

  • Epigastric Region: The

area above the stomach

  • Hypochondriac Regions (left/right): 2 regions just below ribs, immediately over the abdomen
  • Umbilical Region: region surrounding the umbilicus (navel)
regions of the abdominal cavity cont pg 177
Regions of the Abdominal Cavity Cont….. Pg. 177
  • Lumbar regions (left/right): 2 regions near the waist
  • Hypogastric Region: area just below the umbilical region
  • Iliac, or inguinal regions (left/right): 2 regions near the upper portion of the hipbone
it gets easier
It gets EASIER!
  • There is a simpler way using 4 quadrants
  • Right upper quadrant (RUQ): On right anterior side, contains part of liver, the gallbladder, and parts of the pancreas and intestinal tract
  • Right lower quadrant (RLQ): On right anterior side, contains appendix, parts of intestines, reproductive organs in female, and urinary tract
the last 2 quadrants
The last 2 quadrants…..
  • Left upper quadrant (LUQ): On left anterior side, contains stomach, spleen, parts of liver, pancreas, and intestines
  • Left lower quadrant (LLQ): On left anterior side, contains parts of intestines, reproductive organs in female, and urinary tract
9 14 2011
  • If you had to live the remainder of your life without 2 body systems, what would they be and why?
what is vital for life
What is vital for life?
  • Our cells need oxygen to live, respiratory system supplies oxygen, cardiovascular system carries the oxygen through the blood to cells
  • Always check for open airway/breathing when treating anyone (esp. emergency)
  • Next check for circulation (i.e. cardiovascular system)
  • Respiratory and cardiovascular systems are VITAL FOR LIFE!! (most responsible for keeping us alive!)
respiratory system
Respiratory System
  • Consist of:
  • Lungs- main organ of system
  • Provides oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide
  • Outside of lungs is a moist, double layer of membrane called the “pleura”/ “pleurae”
  • Outer layer of membrane: Parietal pleura
  • Inner layer of membrane: Visceral pleura
  • Both layers make lung movement easier by protecting lungs and providing moisture
  • Space between the 2 pleura: pleural cavity
respiratory cont
Respiratory cont…..
  • Right lung (larger lung) has 3 lobes
  • Left lung has 2 lobes
  • We can live without one or more lobes (even without an entire lung)
  • Respiratory Tract: system of passageways through which air moves in and out of the lungs
  • Muscles: that move air in/out of lungs
  • The system performs 2 major tasks:
    • External respiration (breathing) air exchange between body and outside environment
    • Internal respiration: bringing oxygen to cells /removing carbon dioxide from cells
external respiration
External Respiration
  • Inspiration, or inhalation,

brings air into the mouth or nose.

  • Nose is divided into 2 nasal cavities by a piece of cartilage (nasal septum)
  • Air passes through cavities and sinuses, gets warmed by blood in mucous membranes.
  • Small hairs (cilia) filter out foreign bodies
ex resp the throat
Ex. Resp (The Throat)
  • Air reaches the throat, or pharynx, a passageway for both air and food that is divided into 3 sections
  • 1. Nasopharynx: lies above soft palate which is a flexible muscular sheet that separates nasopharynx from rest of pharynx
    • Contains pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) which aid in body’s immune defense
ex resp the throat1
Ex. Resp (The Throat)
  • 2. Oropharynx, back portion of mouth, contains the palatine tonsils
    • Made up of lymphatic tissue (immune system)
    • Part of mechanism that triggers swallowing
  • 3. Laryngopharynx, bottom section of pharynx
    • Point where respiratory tract divides into the esophagus and larynx.
external respiration cont
External Respiration cont….
  • Esophagus
  • - passageway for food (digestive system)
  • - Epiglottis (movable flap of cartilage covering larynx opening, glottis) prevents food from going into the larynx
  • Aspiration: swallowing & inhaling simultaneously pulling food into larynx
    • Could cause choking and need Heimlich
  • Larynx (voice box)
external respiration cont1
External Respiration cont…
  • Larynx, or voice box, is place from which air passes to the trachea or windpipe.
  • Air goes into larynx to form sounds of speech and singing
  • Contains vocal chords (size/thickness determine pitch)
  • Trachea, or windpipe, is a tube that connects larynx to right & left bronchi (both contain cartilage and mucous glands)
  • Bronchi are passageways through which air enters both lungs (get smaller as they branch out, smallest are bronchioles
q o d 9 15 11
Q.O.D. -- 9/15/11
  • List as many (H.S.L.) activities as you can that require you to use your respiratory system.
  • Video –Respiratory System
  • Review
    • List the 3 sections of the throat
    • The esophagus does…?
    • The larynx does …?
    • The epiglottis is used for…?
more info your questions answered
More info…Your questions, answered!
  • Brain Freeze!
  • Snoring
  • Sinusitus
  • Tonsils
  • Tonsil Stones
internal respiration
Internal Respiration
  • Structures inside lungs resemble upside-down trees with smaller branches
  • At end of bronchiole is a cluster of air sacs, alveoli
  • Alveoli: one-celled, thin-walled and connect to small blood vessels/capillaries in lungs
  • Oxygen is exchanged from alveoli into bloodstream via capillaries
  • Carbon dioxide is sent from capillaries into alveoli
  • Oxygen then goes to body’s cells
internal respiration cont
Internal Respiration cont
  • Muscles for breathing: Diaphragm & Intercostal Muscles
  • Muscular contractions enlarge the volume of the thoracic cavity during inspiration and decrease volume when they relax during expiration
  • Diaphragm lowers and intercostals pull ribs upward and outward when they contract to enlarge thoracic cavity
diseases disorders of respiratory system
Diseases/disorders of respiratory system
  • Respiratory system is site of many inflammations, disorders, and infections
  • Bronchitis, Asthma, Emphysema, Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD)
  • Hemoptysis (coughing up blood), Lung Cancer, Upper Respiratory Infection (URI), Epistaxis (nosebleeds), Pneumonia
  • Tuberculosis, Anthracosis (black lung), Pleurisy, Influenza, and many breathing disorders
cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular System
  • Responsible for circulation of blood
  • Heart: average adult’s is size of fist and lies in thoracic cavity between lungs (2/3 lies on left side)
  • Pericardium: is a protective sac covering heart and has 2 layers (visceral/inner layer and parietal/outer portion)
  • Heart has 3 layers of tissue. Outer most is epicardium, middle layer is myocardium, inner layer is endocardium which forms lining for chambers and valves of heart
cardiovascular system cont
Cardiovascular System cont
  • Parts of the heart – right and left sides, each side has 2 chambers (upper chambers are atriums, lower chambers are ventricles)
  • R & L sides are separated by a partition called a septum
cardiovascular system cont1
Cardiovascular System cont
  • Blood Flow: flows in only one direction through the chambers of the heart with flow regulated by valves
  • Arteries carry blood away from heart and veins carry blood toward the heart
  • Valves of Heart: control blood flow, left valve between chambers is the bicuspid, right valve is tricuspid
  • Cardiac Conduction System: contained in conductive tissue and controls the electrical impulses that cause the heart to contract
q o d 9 16 11
Q.O.D – 9/16/11
  • What do you do to keep your heart “healthy”?
  • http://rivals.yahoo.com/highschool/blog/prep_rally/post/Star-QB-has-to-have-part-of-leg-amputated-follow?urn=highschool-wp5827
  • Quiz

Heart Rate

  • Relaxation / Mediation
  • Target Heart Rate Zone
  • Importance of Target Heart Rate Zone (Homework)
q o d 9 19 11
Q.O.D. – 9/19/11
  • What are some “things” that we can do to make our bones stronger?
cardiovascular system cont2
Cardiovascular System cont
  • Circulation: arteries and veins are the vessels that carry blood to and from heart and lungs and to and from heart to rest of body
  • 3 types of circulation:
    • Coronary
    • Pulmonary
    • Systemic
  • Coronary Circulation: circulation of blood within the heart
    • Coronary arteries branch off aorta (main artery through which blood exits the heart) to supply blood to heart muscle
cardiovascular system cont3
Cardiovascular System cont
  • Pulmonary Circulation: flow of blood between heart and lungs
    • Pulmonary arteries carry blood low in oxygen from R ventricle to lungs to get oxygen (away)
    • Oxygen rich blood flows from lungs to L atrium through pulmonary veins (to)
  • Systemic Circulation: flow of blood between heart and cells
    • Heart pumps O-rich blood through major arteries to cells (carotid, femoral)
    • Arteries lead to arterioles (smaller vessels) which divide into narrow vessels/capillaries
    • Blood travels back to heart through venules (small branches of veins) and veins
    • Upper body through Superior Vena Cava, lower through Inferior Vena Cava
cardiovascular system cont4
Cardiovascular System cont
  • Blood: a complex mixture of cells, water, and various proteins and sugars
    • Sends life sustaining nutrients, oxygen, and hormones to body
    • Removes waste products from cells to prevent toxic buildup and regulates body temp
  • A thick liquid. Fluid part is plasma which is clear and consists of water, proteins, salts, nutrients, vitamins, and hormones
  • Cells or solids make up 45% and consists of Erythrocytes (red blood cells/RBCs), Leukocytes (white blood cells/WBCs), Thrombocytes (platelets)
cardiovascular system cont5
Cardiovascular System cont
  • Blood types
  • 4 types of human blood groups
  • O, A, B, AB
  • Positive or negative element known as the Rh factor first found in Rhesus monkeys
  • RH factor is a type of antigen (causes body to produce antibodies
cardiovascular system cont6
Cardiovascular System cont
  • Diseases & Disorders of the Cardiovascular System:
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure), Stroke (blood clot blocks blood flow), Arteriosclerosis (hardening of arteries), Aneurysm (disease/ birth defect/ trauma weakens artery wall)
  • Coronary Artery disease (CAD- narrowing of coronary arteries), Myocardial infarction (heart attack), Congestive heart failure (CHF- heart cannot pump as usual), Anemia (lack of O in RBCs), Hemophilia (excessive bleeding), Leukemia (abnormal increase in WBC)
skeletal system
Skeletal System
  • Skeletal and muscular systems form framework that holds body together, allows movement, and protects/supports all internal organs
  • Born with 350 bones! Some fuse, a mature adult has 206
  • Skeleton consists of bones and joints which also serve as levers to lift and move while also storing calcium