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Mexican Revolution. Military Phase. Fall of Diaz. Causes Economic recession / U.S. depression 1906-1907 Food crisis 1907-1910 (crop failures) Worker’s strikes 1906 Consolidated Copper Mine 1907 Textile workers Agitation of middle class reformers

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Fall of diaz
Fall of Diaz

  • Causes

    • Economic recession / U.S. depression 1906-1907

    • Food crisis 1907-1910 (crop failures)

    • Worker’s strikes

      • 1906 Consolidated Copper Mine

      • 1907 Textile workers

    • Agitation of middle class reformers

    • Dissatisfaction of some large landholders / capitalists (Madero)

Francisco madero1
Francisco Madero

  • Leading critic of Diaz political machine

  • Family was part of elite social class with political and economic ties to Diaz

  • Agreed with Diaz’ liberal economic policies but wanted liberal political movement

  • Insisted 1910 V.P. candidate come from outside Diaz clique

  • Ran for president in 1910 when Diaz ignored V.P. request

Francisco madero cont
Francisco Madero cont.

  • Ran under Anti-Reelectionist Party ticket

  • Diaz jailed over 5000 supporters and Madero himself just before election

  • Plan of San Luis Potosi

Plan of san luis potosi
Plan of San Luis Potosi

  • Written by Madero while in jail

  • Published once he was in Texas

  • Provisions

    • Declared that 1910 elections were null and void

    • Madero assumed title of Provisional President

    • Called for free elections when conditions permitted

Treaty of ciudad juarez
Treaty of Ciudad Juarez

  • Issued after capture of Juarez

  • Diaz flees

  • Provisions

    • Ended hostilities

    • Resignation of Diaz

    • Placed Francisco de la Berra in as provisional president

Madero takes power
Madero takes power

  • Madero elected in 1912

  • Quickly is at odds with Zapata over land reform

    • Plan of Ayala announced by Zapata

  • Bernardo Reyes (Diaz aide) & Felix Diaz (nephew) attempt revolt

  • Madero can’t deal with the many decisions, at the mercy of aides (Huerta is commander of military)

Emiliano zapata
Emiliano Zapata

  • Agrarian Revolutionary

  • Slogan of “Tierra y Libertad”

  • Leader of landless peasants

  • Called for return of land that had been taken during land concentration of Diaz

  • Quickly became disillusioned with Madero

Plan de ayala
Plan de Ayala

  • All foreign owned lands would be seized

  • All lands previously taken from villages would be returned (ejidos)

  • 1/3 of all land held by “friendly” hacendados taken for redistribution

  • All lands owned by enemies of Zapata movement would be taken

Madero s fall
Madero’s Fall

  • Coup led by Victoriano Huerta aided by American ambassador Henry Lane Wilson

  • Revolt aided by release of Reyes and Felix Diaz (bombard Mexico City)

  • La Decena Tragica

    • Madero is killed February 1913

  • Huerta assumes control

Victoriano huerta
Victoriano Huerta

  • Served as General for Diaz

  • Never recognized by Woodrow Wilson due to method of gaining power

  • Henry Lane Wilson is recalled

  • U.S. aids Huerta’s opponents

  • Wanted to reestablish a form of Diaz regime

  • Could never gain full control

U s intervention
U.S. Intervention

  • U.S. continually opposes Huerta regime

  • Tampico incident

  • Veracruz occupation

    • Other Mexican leaders reacted against U.S. actions (we were expecting their support)

    • Huerta had to pull troops away from Revolution to Veracruz, leaves him vulnerable

Huerta s fall
Huerta’s Fall

  • Blames U.S.

  • Forced into exile by Zapatistas, Pancho Villa, Carranza and U.S.

  • Later attempts revolt from U.S. and is arrested and jailed

Pancho villa
Pancho Villa

  • Also agrarian revolutionary with different land reform plan

  • All land confiscated would be used for revolution by government and distributed after revolution ends

  • Supporters were small ranchers, cowboys and other unemployed

  • Created well equiped and well paid professional army

  • Most formidable of Carranza’s military opponents

Venustiano carranza
Venustiano Carranza

  • Governor of state of Coahuila

  • Dissident member of landowning elite

  • Believed Mexico needed “energetic middle class”

  • Huerta’s most dangerous enemy

  • Issues Plan de Guadalupe (March 1913) to counter Plan de Ayala

  • Took control of Mexico City in July 1914

Plan de guadalupe
Plan de Guadalupe

  • Carranza assumed leadership of rebellion against Huerta

  • Declared Huerta’s claim to power to be illegitimate

  • Delcared himself “First Chief of the Constitutionalist Army”

  • Followed by edicts stating: (Obregon)

    • restoration of ejidos and establishing national agrarian commision

    • called for improved conditions of poor

Aguascaliente convention
Aguascaliente Convention

  • Convention of Zapata’s, Villa’s and Carranza’s supporters

  • Carranza moves to Veracruz for “safety”

  • Villa’s troops take control of convention hall

  • Villa’s suicide statement

  • Adopts Plan de Ayala

  • Conventionists v. Constitutionalists

Carranza consolidates power
Carranza consolidates power

  • Chaos during this period

  • Obregon defeats Villa with Villa returning to the north and Zapata continuing to attack in the south

  • Carranza moves to Mexico City

  • Call for a constitutional convention in 1916

  • Constitutional convention takes place in 1917

U s expedition
U.S. Expedition

  • Pancho Villa, reacting to embargo, raids Columbus, NM

  • Woodrow Wilson sends General Pershing into Mexico to capture and punish Villa

  • Carranza opposes action, sees this as a "foreign invasion" of Mexico

  • Expedition is unsuccessful and finally recalled

Constitutional convention
Constitutional Convention

  • Call for a constitutional convention in 1916

  • Convention takes place in 1917

  • Carranza presents draft of recommendations that show little social change, no agrarian reform and limited regard for labor

  • Control of Convention taken by radicals

Constitution of 1917
Constitution of 1917

  • Final document was more liberal than Carranza had intended

  • Major clauses

    • Article 3 - Secular education

    • Article 27 - Land reform

    • Article 123 - Labor reform

    • Article 130 - Restrictions on Church

Article 3
Article 3

  • Compulsory elementary education

  • Public education will be free

  • Prohibited religion from having any influence in public education

Article 27
Article 27

  • Nation is the original owner of all lands, waters and subsoil

  • State could expropriate with compensation

  • All acts passed since the Land Law of 1856 transferring ownership of the ejidos was null and void

Article 123
Article 123

  • 8 hour work day

  • Prohibited child labor

  • Equal pay for equal work

  • Wages must be paid in legal tender not goods, tokens or vouchers (end the tienda de raya)

  • Right to bargain collectively, organize and strike

Article 130
Article 130

  • Nation can not create law establishing religion

  • Marriage was a civil contract

  • Only individuals born in Mexico can be "ministers"

  • Limited property ownership by church

Carranza s final years
Carranza's final years

  • Moved to the right

  • Did not fully implement the Constitution

  • Received de jure recognition from the U.S.

  • Remained neutral in World War I

    • Zimmerman Telegram

  • Announced that Article 27 was retroactive (U.S. very upset)

Carranza s fall
Carranza's Fall

  • Carranza's term ends in 1920

  • He supports Ignacio Bonillas (ambassador to the U.S.) who he could control

  • Obregon comes out of retirement to run

  • Carranza attempts to manipulate electoral process in favor of Bonillas

  • Obregon and Adolfo de la Huerta led revolt to oust Carranza

Carranza s fall con t
Carranza's Fall (con’t)

  • Carranza loads train full of bullion and heads for Veracruz

  • Train is attacked

  • Carranza excapes to mountains but is trapped and murdered there

  • Adolfo de la Huerta is named interim president

Obregon s presidency
Obregon's presidency

  • Elected to office in special election, assumes control in November 1920

  • Pragmatic business approach to government

  • Sought accomodation with all groups except reactionary clergy and landlords

  • Modern version of "pan o palo”

Obregon s policies
Obregon's Policies

  • Land reform

  • Labor

  • Education

  • Indigenismo

  • U.S. relationship

Land reform
Land Reform

  • Agrarian reform was useful safety valve for peasant discontent

  • Created national agrarian commission which oversaw state commissions

  • Power to expropriate hacendado land for landless villages

  • Paid for with 20 year bonds

  • Reform proceeded slowly due to:

  • Litigation by landlords

Land reform con t
Land Reform (con’t)

  • Armed resistance by landlords

  • Opposition by clergy

  • 3 million acres distributed

  • 320 million acres in hands of hacendados

  • Even with land, failure occurred as government did not provide: seeds, tools, adequate credit or training


  • Encouraged labor to organize

  • Confederacion Regional Obrera Mexicana (CROM) - labor union headed by Luis Morones

  • Ties to Samuel Gompers and the AFL in the United States

  • Semi-official status, supported by the government

  • Coopted by Obregon


  • Jose Vasconcelos - Secretary of Education

  • Created new type of rural school, La Casa del Pueblo (The House of the People)

    • Designed to serve all of village

    • Three Rs, art, music, sports, theater, instruction in sanitation and agriculture

    • Idealistic but at times unprepared teachers

    • Itinerant teachers were sent to train those in the villages

Education con t
Education (con’t)

  • Murals on public buildings

  • Conflict between new secular schools and religious schools

    • Priest denounced secular education

  • Obregon did not enforce Article 3 of the Constitution (ban on religious primary schools)

    • In the absence of state resources better to be taught by priest than stay illiterate


  • Reassessment of Indian cultural heritage, pushing the greatness of old Indian arts

  • Manuel Gamio - director of Office of Anthropology (1st in Americas)

  • Study of Teotihuacan

  • Preserve & restore cultural heritage

  • Amass data for sound plan of economic and social recovery

  • Partisans of Revolution idealized Aztec Mexico

U s relationship
U.S. Relationship

  • Problem with retroactivity of Article 27 (Obregon will not openly state nonretroactivity)

  • U.S. withholds diplomatic recognition of the Obregon government

  • Obregon compromises

    • threat of counterrevolutionary coup against selection of Plutarco Calles as successor

U s relationship con t
U.S. Relationship (con’t)

  • Bucareli Agreement - August 1923

    • Obregon confirms nonretroactivity

    • U.S. gives formal recognition to Obregon government

  • Coup attempt - December 1923

    • put down coup with military supplies purchased from the U.S.

Calles presidency
Calles' Presidency

  • Dominates the next decade of Mexican politics

  • Continued on foundations of Obregon

  • Radical rhetoric - pragmatic policy

Calles economic and land policies
Calles' Economic and Land Policies

  • Rapid growth of national capitalism

  • Creation of National Bank

    • strengthens fiscal/monetary policy

  • National Road Commission organized

  • National Electric Codes enacted

    • stimulates growth of construction and consumer goods industries

Calles economic and land policies con t
Calles' Economic and Land Policies (con’t)

  • Aid given to industry (foreign and domestic)

    • protective tariffs

    • subsidies

  • Land reform

    • distribution increased from Obregon

      • over twice as much land distributed 8 million hectares

    • problems

      • Hacendados were able to choose the land they gave up, most of it was not arable

      • Calles did not provide tools or other items to make the land productive

Calles economic and land policies con t1
Calles' Economic and Land Policies (con’t

  • Government bank was created to lend money to ejidos

    • 4/5 of money went to the hacendados because of superior credit ratings

  • Land reform judged a failure because the grain production of 1930 was below the production of 1910

    • Calles concluded peasant proprietorship was not economically desirable and ended land redistribution


  • Trade unions serve two purposes

    • keep growing power of capitalism in check

    • barricade in the event of attack on capitalists

  • Labor began to split from CROM form independent unions

    • disillusioned with corrupt leaders and low wages

Conflict with u s
Conflict with U.S.

  • Calles welcomed foreign capital but believed that Mexico had the right to regulate the conditions surrounding it

  • 1925 dispute over land ownership

Conflict with u s cont
Conflict with U.S. (cont.)

  • Mexican Congress passes laws implementing Article 27

    • Oil ownership becomes a lease arrangement

      • exchange title for 50 year concession (lease agreement)

      • possible 30 year renewal

      • possible further extension

  • Mexican view

    • Eliminated vagueness and gave oil companies firm titles. Stopped calls for outright nationalization of oil

  • Oil Company view

    • Law was confiscatory, they threatened to drill without confirming concessions

Conflict with u s cont1
Conflict with U.S. (cont.)

  • American hardliners were "saber rattling"

  • American ambassador "there is little white blood in Calle's government"

  • Secretary of State Kellog stated that there were "Bolshevik aims in Mexico and Latin America"

Conflict with u s cont2
Conflict with U.S. (cont.)

  • Intervention was stopped by arguments from:

    • progressive senators

    • press, church, academic groups

    • realization that war with Mexico would have little national support

Conflict with u s cont3
Conflict with U.S. (cont.)

  • Dwight Morrow appointed Ambassador to Mexico

  • Negotiated an understanding with Calles concerning the time limitation on concessions

  • Mexican Supreme Court ruled that aspect of the law unconstitutional

  • Crisis was averted

  • Law still provided for confirmatory concessions and reaffirmed national ownership of the subsoil

Religious conflict
Religious Conflict

  • Church v. modernizing thrust of the Revolution

    • January 1926 the church heirarchy disavowed the Constitution

    • Calles enforces dormant anti-clerical clauses of the Constitution

      • Calles law

        • registration of priests

        • closing of all religious primary schools

Religious conflict1
Religious Conflict

  • Church suspended all services in Mexico and boycotted all goods except necessities

  • Militant Catholics took up arms - Cristeros (Catholic guerrillas)

    • government schools and young teachers were targets

    • government repression was severe

Presidential election 1928
Presidential Election 1928

  • Deal between Calles and Obregon

    • supporters in Congress change the Constitution to allow former presidents to be reelected after one term

    • term was extended from 4 to 6 years

Presidential election 1928 cont
Presidential Election 1928 (cont.)

  • Two opponents for the office conspire against Obregon and Calles

    • Calles has them arrested and shot

    • Obregon is elected, then three weeks later he is assassinated by a fanatical Cristero in Mexico City

Calles el jefe maximo
Calles - "El jefe maximo"

  • Calles places three different men in the office of president to fulfill Obregon's term but he is the power behind the office. Each one resigns after displeasing "el jefe"

  • Military uprising is crushed in 1929, the "last hurrah" of the military caudillos

National revolutionary party pnr
National Revolutionary Party (PNR)

  • Calles institutionalizes the rule of the "revolutionary family" (military and political leaders since 1920)

  • Under different names this party has been ruling Mexico since 1929.

  • Their official presidential candidate had never lost until the election of Vincente Fox, the present president of Mexico.

National revolutionary party pnr1
National Revolutionary Party (PNR)

  • After consolidating power the "revolutionary family" turns conservative

    • shift concides with beginning of the Great Depression

  • By 1933 a progressive wing of PNR emerges with General Lazaro Cardenas as leader of the reformers

    • has been a part of the inner circle of the party

    • 1930 was named Party Chairmen

National revolutionary party pnr2
National Revolutionary Party (PNR)

  • 1934 elections Cardenas is nominated by the Party ( with Calles blessing) for the presidency

    • seen as a concession to reformers in the party

    • Calles thought he would remain loyal

    • cabinet was hand picked by Calles

Cardenas programs
Cardenas' Programs

  • Established a Six Year Plan

  • Mexican Revolution continues under Cardenas

  • Established a spirit of service in the bureaucracy

  • Closed down the gambling houses

  • Cut his own salary in 1/2

Agrarian reform
Agrarian Reform

  • Land distribution on large scale

  • Ejido was the focal point of agrarian reform

    • land given to both the ejido (communal) and the rancho (individual land)

    • where appropriate large collective farms were established

    • government provided seeds, machinery and credit

Agrarian reform cont
Agrarian Reform (cont.)

  • 45 million acres of land distributed

  • productivity was increased

  • Structural defects of reforms

    • conceived to satisfy land hunger instead of real agricultural development

    • ejidal parcel was very small

    • land distributed was often of poor quality

    • technical assistance was often inadequate

Labor reform
Labor Reform

  • Corrupts leaders are removed

  • Confederacion de Trobajadores Mexicanos (CTM) replaces CROM

  • Strikes supported by government (where appropriate)

Fall of calles
Fall of Calles

  • All of these actions angered Calles, he begin to plot against Cardenas

  • Cardenas calls for the resignation of the cabinet and forms and new Anti - Calles cabinet

  • By 1935 Cardenas is the master of Mexico.

  • 1936 Calles is deported for "plotting against the government"

Prm party of the mexican revolution
PRM - Party of the Mexican Revolution

  • Cardenas reorganized and purged the party of Calles influence.

  • It emerges as the PRM

  • The three pillars of this party are labor, the peasantry and the army.

Oil crisis
Oil Crisis

  • American and British oil companies v. workers unions

  • Strike leads to arbitration

  • Arbitration finding is scaled down from original union demands but the companies refuse to settle

  • March 18, 1938 Cardenas nationalized the oil companies

Oil crisis cont
Oil Crisis (cont.)

  • Economic Independence

  • Action was not a precedent, 90% of mining was still in foreign hands

  • U.S. took no strong action due to

    • Good Neighbor Policy being in effect under Franklin Roosevelt

    • Ambassador to Mexico understood Cardenas policy and reasons

Oil crisis cont1
Oil Crisis (cont.)

  • Timing of the move was also fortunate

    • War in Europe was looming

    • Cardenas announced Mexico would pay all just claims