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Kayapo Territory in the state of Para Contains 6 reserves, 100,000 kilometres 1993, 14 villages, total pop. 5,000 Kayapo-resembling apes Name was given because of traditional dance Since discovery of gold, contact has increased Leading to more dependence on consumer goods
Kayapo Scarification, ornaments for pierced lips, ears, and noses, body paint and different hair styles Distinguishes social and age classes, and to show avalailability to mates Begins in infancy, within minutes of birth From age three, children painted with black geometric designs Age eight, boys leave home, girls learn the art of body painting Puberty-marks change for both sexes “Black-thighed-ones” and “Bachelor Youths”
Kayapo Kupato-Kayapo elder Entire village is engaged in decisions Layout of village is a circle Entire village participates in children's education Gossip is looked down on
Yanomami Yanomami means “human being” Hundreds of small villages River People (5%) and Forest People (95%) Natural world and spiritual world are unified Nature creates everything and is sacred
Yanomami Warring makes up a large portion of Yanomami culture 40% of males have killed, 25% of males die of war violence Causes of war are a factor of trade Wives can be traded Believe in prearranged marriage Forges alliances between families and villages Scarification, piercing, and body paint valued as beauty
Main causes of destruction: Media Government Mining Agriculture and Logging Industry
Media Positives: • Record of “the old ways” • prayer, worship, and preparation for battle • Meetings with record of Government • Self expression of indigenous culture out
Makaron Opoi D'Joi Mekaron Opoi D'Joi-he who creates images in language spoken Kayapo to familiarize themselves with video technology For preserving traditional culture, rituals, dances, and songs for future generations Filmmaker Monica Frota 2 villages-Metuktire and Mekragnoty Exchange political speeches and document protests
Media Negatives: Media brings in western culture Youth support it Creates conflict Exposure
Kayapo offer three day, five day, and seven day trips Positive: Negative: Artwork has become generic Tribe makes money
Body Shop accumulated 1 billion dollars in retail sales Kayapo provides The Body Shop with Brazilian nut oil The Body Shop sold 1.3 million liters of Brazilia nut oil a value of $28 mill. $686,000 given to Kayapo
9.4 million hectares permanently set aside for 10,000 Yanomami These lands declared a national park Under Brazilian law, national parks can be used for mining
Mining brings diseases such as: Malaria Tuberculosis These diseases have killed 2,000 of the 20,000 Yanomami Mining also: Pollutes rivers Chases of wild animals for hunting and fishing
Mining Machines from mining scare away game High pressure hoses wash away river banks Mercury is dumped into rivers Child mortality rates have gone up, birth rates have gone down
Approximately 60 acres of rainforest are destroyed every day in the Amazon Basin. Farmers use “slash and burn” method for clearing.
Deforestation Agricultural production, cattle ranching, commercial logging, demand for fuelwood Raniforests cover only 7% of planet's surface, inhabits 50% of plants and animals 27,000 species may endagered every year (Harvard University biologist Edward O. Wilson)
Discussion 1. Do you think it is important to protect the culture and ethnicity of these tribes? 2. Do you think media has a more nagative affect or positive affect on these tribes? 3. What significance can you see with American history and Brazil's case in dealing with the tribes?