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Hacker Ethics. Kim Bissett Sabrina Short. Hacker Ethic: In General. Freedom of Information The web is not physical; it couldn’t be interpreted as property, so it can be accessed by the public Security/Privacy

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hacker ethics

Hacker Ethics

Kim Bissett

Sabrina Short

hacker ethic in general
Hacker Ethic: In General
  • Freedom of Information
    • The web is not physical; it couldn’t be interpreted as property, so it can be accessed by the public
  • Security/Privacy
    • Hackers do not want a real-life Big Brother society (from Orwell’s 1984). During the 80s, they discovered a major flaw in a credit firm, where the general public did not know that the firm was collecting their information
hackers do have ethics
Hackers do have ethics!
  • Hackers maintain a trust system; the subculture operates in a tight network
  • Hackers are not entirely good, nor are they just as bad.
  • Intentions are based on utilitarianism (Mills)
boundaries in the hacker ethic
Boundaries in the Hacker Ethic
  • They can target government and corporate systems, but not those of an individual or a nonprofit organization. The cause of the organization is key.
  • The hackers should share information with others within the group. They cannot brag, expose their knowledge to the outside world, spy on users, or trash systems.
kevin mitnick
Kevin Mitnick
  • Hacked into the NORAD system in the 1980s
  • Convicted and sent into prison on two occasions (1988 and 1995)
  • On the second time, Mitnick broke into an email system (not known if he was spying on it, which would violate the hacker ethics.)
  • If he was caught the first time, Mitnick should have kept a lower profile.
  • Hackers get exposed to the mainstream, mostly by the government, when they disregard the secrecy set forth by the hacker ethic.
cyberactivism and hacktivism
Cyberactivism and Hacktivism
  • Cyberactivism is a form of protest that alerts society of social problems, such as poverty, through listservs, virtual sit-ins, and creating websites to attract the attention of the public.
  • The computer is proving to be a new medium for the 21st century.
cyberactivism and hacktivism 2
Cyberactivism and Hacktivism 2
  • Hacktivism is the intentional vandalism of websites that do not support or alert the attention of social problems.
  • Such political clash can cause jeopardy in national identity.
  • This is an extreme form of cyberactivism, therefore it is not practiced as much.
  • New protest techniques used in the WTO Protests,Battle in Seattle, in 1999.
kant s philosophy
Kant’s Philosophy
  • German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
    • determined by the action rather than the intent or outcome.
    • moral ideal that action out weighs consequence.
    • All actions should be guided by moral laws, and these laws are universal.
duty is what counts
Duty is what counts!
  • what we want is of no importance; duty is what counts.
    • Hacking into systems to gain knowledge of the software or to point out flaws is wrong, even if no damage is done to the system.
  • Breaking and Entering- if you break into someone’s house, but don’t take anything or break anything you are still committing a crime.
    • Taking away a person’s sense of security.
information is property
information IS property
  • According to United Kingdom, with the Criminal Damage Act of 1971.
    • Offender in the UK was convicted of property damage even though the property was not tangible and the damage could only be determined by the machine.
  • The Computer Misuse Act of 1990
    • “unauthorized access”
    • “data modification”
    • makes crimes easier to prosecute.
public information
Public Information
  • Some information on the internet is made accessible to the public.
    • but should not be destroyed or edited without authorization.
  • Other information that is not purposefully made accessible
    • Account numbers and personal information should not be sought after regardless of one’s intentions.
international legislation
International Legislation
  • International groups like the United Nations and the Council of Europe are writing legislation that applies internationally.
  • Three types of Cybercrime as using a computer as a:
    • target- spreading viruses
    • tool- using a computer to commit traditional crimes such as credit card fraud
    • accessory- to store illegal or stolen information.
freedom of speech
Freedom of Speech
  • Hacktivism violates people’s first amendment rights of Freedom of Speech.
    • instead create you own website or blog rather than editing the site of a political group.
  • According to Kant: no ones rights should be taken at the expense of another’s because all of mankind is equal.
hidden subculture
Hidden Subculture
  • Hackers design this subculture and trust system so they don’t get caught.
    • keep a low profile
    • don’t brag about what you are doing to people outside of the network
    • don’t narc on a fellow hacker if you are caught
  • Why?
    • hackers know what they are doing is wrong and they develop a system of “cultural norms” to avoid prosecution.
what do you think
what do YOU think?
  • Hacking into government systems to point out security flaws without harm to the system?
    • Ethical?
    • Not Ethical?
  • Hacking into a home computer to point out security flaws?
    • Ethical?
    • Not Ethical?
what do you think16
what do YOU think?
  • A graduate student specializing in computer security creates a website similar to Northwest Airlines to demonstrate that terrorists can make fake boarding passes.
    • Ethical?
    • Not ethical?
what do you think17
what do YOU think?
  • A data collecting company claims to keep certain information private, such as SSN and account numbers. A hacker discovers that the company did not keep its promise. The private information is actually published on the report. The hacker makes his findings public in a news outlet.
    • Ethical?
    • Not ethical?
what do you think18
what do YOU think?
  • Hacking into the website of a political candidate and editing information because you disagree with his position?
    • Ethical?
    • Not Ethical?