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The Revolution. Chapter 7. Pick A Side. 1/5 th Patriots – New England & VA 2/5 th Loyalists – NY and Carolinas 2/5 th Neutral – Pennsylvania: Quaker pacifists African-Americans fought on both sides depending on who was promising freedom. In the South, more slaves joined the British army.

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The revolution

The Revolution

Chapter 7

Pick a side
Pick A Side

  • 1/5th Patriots – New England & VA

  • 2/5th Loyalists – NY and Carolinas

  • 2/5th Neutral – Pennsylvania: Quaker pacifists

  • African-Americans fought on both sides depending on who was promising freedom. In the South, more slaves joined the British army.

Patriot forces
Patriot Forces

  • Most American males served in local militia (protection from Indians)

  • Patriots seized control of community militias – becomes harder to be neutral

  • Continental Army – suffered casualty rates as high as 40%

  • Issues

    • Shortages of food and pay

    • Discipline & training


  • British colonial officials, Anglican clergy, Indians and others

  • About 50,000 fought for the King and 80,000 fled the country after the war

Early battles
Early Battles

  • British want to cut New England off from other colonies

  • Drive Washington out of NYC and into New Jersey

  • Christmas Eve Patriot victory at Trenton – Crossing the Delaware River

  • British strategy fails at Battle of Saratoga

Battle of saratoga
Battle of Saratoga

  • Ends British strategy

  • France signs Treaty of Alliance

  • France helps with naval support and British must withdraw troops from mainland to protect their colonies in Caribbean

  • Continental ships raid British merchant ships

Valley forge
Valley Forge

  • Winter of 1777

  • Bitter struggle for survival

  • Unites Patriots

End of war
End of War

  • Britain shifts attention to South

  • Captures Charleston

  • Plundering of Americans to feed the army upsets colonists – turns more to Patriots

Battle of yorktown
Battle of Yorktown

  • Patriots trap British while French close the trap by preventing evacuation by sea

  • Support of Parliament ends

  • Peace negotiations begin in 1782

Treaty of paris 1783
Treaty of Paris 1783

  • Ben Franklin, John Adams, John Jay

  • Withdrawal of British troops

  • Land to Mississippi River and fishing rights in Atlantic

Articles of confederation
Articles of Confederation

  • One branch – legislative – one house Congress

  • Every state has one vote

  • 3/4th must agree for a law

  • Unanimous approval required for changes to government

  • Government could not tax

  • Ratification delayed 3 yrs by MD over western land claims – 8 states ceded land to federal government

Articles of confederation1
Articles of Confederation

  • Debt

    • Congress financed the Revolution mainly by issuing $200 million in paper currency

    • States also issued another $200 million

  • Runaway Inflation

  • Need to pay soldiers and also pensions for officers

Newburgh conspiracy
Newburgh Conspiracy

  • Army in NY waiting for treaty to be completed before disbanding

  • Loss of faith in government leads to talk of a military coup

  • Gen. Washington’s response

    • "Gentlemen, you will permit me to put on my spectacles, for I have not only grown gray but almost blind in the service of my country."

    • Shames conspirators into refraining from mutiny

Western land issues
Western Land issues

  • Land Ordinance of 1785

    • Surveyed land in Ohio Valley for sale by government

  • Northwest Ordinance of 1787

    • 3-5 states

    • Banned slavery north of the Ohio River

State governments
State Governments

  • Most had 2 house legislatures, a governor and a court system

  • States wrote guarantees of freedoms patterned after Virginia’s Declaration of Rights

  • States abolished aristocratic inheritance customs like primogeniture & entail

  • Separation of church and state

  • PA dropped property requirements for voting

Rights of minorities
Rights of Minorities

  • Slaves & Free Blacks

    • PA, MA, CT, NY & NJ abolish slavery by 1805 – gradually dies out in NH & RI

    • Upper South relaxes ban on emancipation

    • Free blacks build community of churches, schools

  • Women

    • Seen as the educators of patriotic values in children

Economic woes
Economic Woes

  • Economic depression

  • Inflation

  • High prices led to food riots

  • Britain dumped surplus goods

  • Lack of hard currency – farmers ask for laws requiring creditors to accept goods and commodities

Shays rebellion
Shays’ Rebellion

  • Daniel Shays – MA farmer

  • Farmers in western MA close courts to prevent foreclosures and imprisonment of debtors

    • release debtors from prisons

  • Governor orders militias from eastern MA to put down rebellion

  • Faced with a strong military presence backed by the state, the rebellion disintegrates

  • Underlying problems remain & lead some to call for a stronger federal government