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Active Management of Third Stage of Labor. Advances in Maternal and Neonatal Health. Session Objectives. To review: Definition of third stage of labor Physiologic vs. active management Risks and benefits of each method of management Drugs used in active management.

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active management of third stage of labor

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

Advances in Maternal and Neonatal Health

session objectives
Session Objectives

To review:

  • Definition of third stage of labor
  • Physiologic vs. active management
  • Risks and benefits of each method of management
  • Drugs used in active management

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

two methods of third stage management
Two Methods of Third Stage Management
  • Physiologic (“expectant”) management
    • Oxytocics are not used
    • Placenta is delivered by gravity and maternal effort
    • Cord is clamped after delivery of the placenta
  • Active Management
    • Oxytocic is given
    • Cord is clamped
    • Placenta delivered by controlled cord traction (CCT) with counter-traction on the fundus
    • Fundal massage

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

critical issues pertaining to the third stage of labor
Critical Issues Pertaining to the Third Stage of Labor
  • Active vs. physiologic management
    • Theoretical potential risks of each
      • Entrapment of placenta
      • Avulsion of cord
      • Uterine inversion
  • Choice of oxytocic agent
    • Stability, safety and side effects of oxytocics
    • Unproven benefit of nipple stimulation
    • CCT and fundal massage if no oxytocic available

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

physiologic management advantages and disadvantages
Physiologic Management: Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Advantages
    • Does not interfere with normal labor process
    • Does not require special drugs/supplies
  • Disadvantages
    • Increases length of third stage
    • Increases risk of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH)

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

active management advantages and disadvantages
Active Management: Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Advantages
    • Decreases length of third stage
    • Decreases risk of PPH
  • Disadvantages
    • Requires oxytocics and items needed for injection
    • Requires a birth attendant with skills in:
      • Observation
      • Giving an injection
      • CCT

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

procedure for active management
Procedure for Active Management
  • Oxytocin
    • Within 1 minute of birth, palpate abdomen to rule out presence of another baby
    • Give oxytocin
  • CCT
    • Await strong uterine contraction (2–3 minutes)
    • Apply controlled cord traction while applying countertraction above pubic bone
    • If placenta does not descend, stop traction and await next contraction

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

active vs physiologic management the bristol and hinchingbrooke trials
Active vs. Physiologic Management: The Bristol and Hinchingbrooke Trials
  • Bristol trial: 1695 women, Hinchingbrooke trial: 1512 women randomly assigned to:
    • Active management
    • Physiologic management

Prendiville et al 1988; Rogers et al 1998.

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

active vs physiologic management the bristol trial objective
Active vs. Physiologic Management: The Bristol Trial Objective

Compare effects of fetal and maternal morbidity of:

  • Routine active management
  • Physiologic management

Prendiville et al 1988.

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

the bristol trial details of active management
The Bristol Trial: Details of Active Management
  • Try to give one ampule of oxytocic (5 units oxytocin and 0.5 mg ergometrine routinely or 10 units synthetic oxytocin if mother has high BP) immediately after delivery of anterior shoulder
  • Try to clamp cord 30 seconds after delivery of baby
  • When uterus has contracted, try to deliver placenta by CCT with protective hand on abdomen helping to shear off placenta and preventing uterine inversion
  • Try not to give any special instructions about posture

Prendiville et al 1988.

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

the bristol trial details of physiologic management
The Bristol Trial: Details of Physiologic Management
  • Try not to give oxytocic
  • Try to leave cord attached to baby until placenta is delivered
  • Try not to use CCT or any manual interference with uterus at fundus
  • Try to encourage mother to concentrate on feeling for next contraction or urge to push
  • When mother feels contraction or urge or there are signs of separation, encourage mother and help her change posture
  • If placenta does not deliver spontaneously, wait, try putting baby to breast and encourage maternal effort

Prendiville et al 1988.

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

active vs physiologic management postpartum hemorrhage
Active vs. Physiologic Management: Postpartum Hemorrhage

Prendiville et al 1988; Rogers et al 1998.

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

active vs physiologic management results
Active vs. Physiologic Management: Results

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

active vs physiologic management the bristol and hinchingbrooke trials1
Active vs. Physiologic Management: The Bristol and Hinchingbrooke Trials
  • Conclusion: Active management of the third stage reduces the risk of PPH:
    • Increased risk of PPH associated with physiologic management
    • Increased need of blood transfusion associated with physiologic management
    • Oxytocin was drug of choice for active management
    • No increase in entrapment of placenta with active management

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

oxytocic drugs
Oxytocic Drugs
  • Oxytocin- posterior pituitary extract
  • Ergometrine- preparation of ergot
  • Syntometrine- combination of oxytocin and ergometrine
  • Misoprostol- prostaglandin E1 analogue

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

oxytocic drugs oxytocin
Oxytocic Drugs: Oxytocin
  • Advantages
    • Causes uterus to contract
    • Acts within 2.5 minutes when given IM
    • Generally does not cause side effects
  • Disadvantages
    • More expensive than ergometrine
    • IM or IV preparations only
    • Not heat stable

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

oxytocic drugs ergometrine
Oxytocic Drugs: Ergometrine
  • Advantages
    • Low price
    • Effect lasts 2–4 hours
  • Disadvantages
    • Takes 6–7 minutes to become effective when given IM; oral form insufficiently effective
    • Causes tonic uterine contraction
    • Increased risk of hypertension, vomiting, headache
    • Contraindicated in women with hypertension or heart disease
    • Not heat stable

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

oxytocic drugs syntometrine
Oxytocic Drugs: Syntometrine
  • Advantages
    • Combined effect of rapid action of oxytocin and sustained action of ergometrine
  • Disadvantages
    • Increased risk of hypertension, nausea and vomiting
    • Not heat stable

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

oxytocin vs syntometrine objective and design
Oxytocin vs. Syntometrine: Objective and Design
  • Objective: To compare effects of syntometrine with oxytocin in reducing the risk of PPH and other maternal and neonatal outcomes
  • Design: Randomized controlled trials

McDonald, Prendiville and Elbourne 2000.

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

oxytocin vs syntometrine results
Oxytocin vs. Syntometrine: Results
  • Syntometrine was associated with a small reduction in risk of PPH < 1000 mL (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.65-0.85)
  • Adverse effects of vomiting and hypertension were associated with the use of syntometrine
  • There were no differences in other maternal or neonatal outcomes

McDonald, Prendiville and Elbourne 2000.

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

oxytocin vs syntometrine conclusion
Oxytocin vs. Syntometrine: Conclusion

Need to weigh benefit of reduction in risk of PPH with risk of other adverse effects associated with syntometrine

McDonald, Prendiville and Elbourne 2000.

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

stability of oxytocics in tropical climates objective and design
Stability of Oxytocics in Tropical Climates: Objective and Design
  • Objective:
    • To determine pattern of stability in long term dark storage, short term exposure to high temperature and light
    • To develop guidelines
  • Methods: Tested field samples of ergometrine and methylergometrine and also simulated field storage conditions at different temperature/light exposure

WHO 1993.

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

stability of oxytocics in tropical climates results
Stability of Oxytocics in Tropical Climates: Results

Field:

  • Ergometrine: only 31% of samples had compliant level of active ingredient
  • Oxytocin: one expired, 5 samples had 104–142% of stated amount of active ingredient

WHO 1993.

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

stability of oxytocics in tropical climates results continued
Stability of Oxytocics in Tropical Climates: Results (continued)

WHO 1993.

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

stability of oxytocics in tropical climates conclusions
Stability of Oxytocics in Tropical Climates: Conclusions
  • Stability of oxytocin is better than ergometrine/ methylergometrine, especially regarding light
  • Store refrigerated, in dark, labeled
  • Remove from box only for immediate use
  • Short periods unrefrigerated are fine (1 month at 30°C, 2 weeks at 40°C)

WHO 1993.

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

nipple stimulation
Nipple Stimulation
  • Nipple stimulation has not been shown to reduce risk of PPH
    • Randomized controlled trial of suckling immediately after birth with over 4,000 subjects in Malawi showed no significant difference in frequency of PPH, mean blood loss or retained placenta
  • When oxytocics are not available, CCT and fundal massage should be performed
  • Advantages of early breastfeeding and nipple stimulation:
    • Stimulates natural production of oxytocin
    • May maintain tone of contracted uterus
    • Benefits baby

Bullough, Msuku and Karonde 1989.

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

recommendations concerning selection of oxytocic
Recommendations Concerning Selection of Oxytocic
  • Use oxytocin, when available:
    • If oxytocin is not available, use syntometrine or ergometrine
    • If oxytocic drugs are not available, use nipple stimulation
  • Remember: Do not use ergometrine in women with hypertension or heart disease
  • Store oxytocics in refrigerator (2–8ºC) and away from light
  • Misoprostol rectally has advantages; awaiting confirmatory studies.

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

summary
Summary
  • Active management of third stage includes:
    • Oxytocin
    • Controlled cord traction
    • Fundal massage
  • Ensuring supply of oxytocin is a priority
  • Reduces risk of PPH
    • Retained placenta
    • Need for therapeutic oxytocics

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

references
References

Bamigboye A et al. 1998. Randomized comparison of rectal misoprostol with syntometrine for management of third stage of labor. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 77: 178–181.

Bullough CH, RS Msuku and I Karonde. 1989. Early suckling and postpartum haemorrhage: Controlled trial in deliveries by traditional birth attendants. Lancet 2(8662): 522–525.

Irons DW, P Sriskandabalan and CHW Bullough. 1994. A simple alternative to parenteral oxytocics for the third stage of labor. Int J Obstet Gynecol 46:15–18.

Khan GQ et al. 1997. Controlled cord traction versus minimal intervention technique in delivery of the placenta: A randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 177(4): 770–774.

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor

references continued
References (continued)

McDonald S, W Prendiville and D Elbourne. 2000. Prophylactic syntometrine versus oxytocin for delivery of the placenta (Cochrane Review), in The Cochrane Library. Issue 4. Update Software: Oxford.

McDonald et al. 1993. Randomized controlled trial of oxytocin alone versus oxytocin and ergometrine in active management of third stage of labor. BMJ 307(6913):1167–1171.

Prendiville et al. 1988. The Bristol third stage trial: active versus physiological management of the third stage of labor. BMJ 297:1295–1300.

Rogers J et al. 1998. Active versus expectant management of third stage of labour: The Hinchingbrooke randomised controlled trial. Lancet 351(9104): 693–699.

World Health Organization (WHO). 1993. Stability of injectable oxytocics in tropical climates: Results of field surveys and simulation studies on ergometrine, methylergometrine, and oxytocin. WHO: Geneva.

Active Management of Third Stage of Labor