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Pneumonia. Definition. • Pneumonia is an acute infection of the parenchyma of the lung( 肺实质 ), caused by bacteria, fungi( 真菌) , virus, parasite (寄生虫) etc. • Pneumonia may also be caused by other factors

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definition
Definition

• Pneumonia is an acute infection of the

parenchyma of the lung(肺实质), caused by

bacteria, fungi(真菌), virus, parasite(寄生虫) etc.

• Pneumonia may also be caused by other factors

including X-ray, chemical, allergen

epidemiology
Epidemiology
  • The morbidity and mortality of pneumonia are high especially in old people.
etiology
Etiology
  • There are two factors involved in the formation of pneumonia , including pathogens and host defenses.
classification
Classification
  • Classification of anatomy
  • Classification of pathogen
  • Classification of acquired environment
classification by pathogen
Ⅰ.Classification by pathogen

Pathogen classification is the most useful

to treat the patients by choosing effective

antimicrobial agents

bacterial pneumonia
Bacterial pneumonia

(1) Aerobic Gram-positive bacteria,such

as streptococcus pneumoniae, staphy-

lococcus aureus, Group A hemolytic

streptococci

(2)Aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, such

as klebsiella pneumoniae, Hemophilus

influenzae, Escherichia coli

(3)Anaerobic bacteria

atypical pneumonia
Atypical pneumonia

Including Legionnaies pneumonia ,

Mycoplasmal pneumonia ,chlamydia pneumonia.

fungal pneumonia
Fungal pneumonia

Fungal pneumonia is commonly caused by candida(念珠菌) and aspergilosis(曲菌).

pneumocystis jiroveci(肺孢子虫)

viral pneumonia
Viral pneumonia

Viral pneumonia may be caused by adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial

virus, influenza, cytomegalovirus,

herpes simplex

pneumonia caused by other pathogen
Pneumonia caused by other pathogen

Rickettsias (a fever rickettsia),

(立克次体)

parasites(寄生虫)

protozoa(原虫)

classification by anatomy
Ⅱ.Classification by anatomy

1. Lobar(大叶性): Involvement of an entire lobe

2.Lobular(小叶性): Involvement of parts of the lobe only, segmental or of alveoli contiguous to bronchi (bronchopneumonia).

3.Interstitial(间质性)

classification by acquired environment
Classification by acquired environment
  • Community acquired pneumonia,CAP
  • (社区获得性肺炎)
  • Hospital acquired pneumonia,HAP ,NP
  • (医院获得性肺炎)
  • Nursing home acquired pneumonia,NHAP
  • (护理院获得性肺炎)
  • Immunocompromised host pneumonia,(ICAP)
  • (免疫宿主低下肺炎)
diagnosis
Diagnosis(诊断步骤)
  • Give a definite diagnosis of pneumonia
  • To evaluate the degree of the pneumonia
  • To definite the pathogen of the pneumonia
diagnosis19
Diagnosis
  • History and physical examination(5W)
  • X-ray examination
  • Pathogen identification
differentiation
Differentiation
  • Pulmonary tuberculosis
  • Lung cancer
  • Acute lung abecess
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Noninfectious pulmonary infiltration
pathogen identification
Pathogen identification
  • Sputum: More than 25 white blood cells (WBCs) and less than 10 epithelial cells.
  • Nasotracheal suctioning
  • BAL, ETA, PSB, LA
  • Blood culture or pleural effusion culture
  • Serologic testing (immunological testing)
  • Molecular Techniques
the principal of therapy
The principal of therapy
  • Select antibiotics
  • According to guideline
therapy
Therapy
  • The therapy should always follow confirmation of the diagnosis of pneumonia and should always be accompanied by a diligent effort to identify an etiologic agent.
  • Empiric therapy,(4-8h)
  • Combined empiric therapy to target therapy
it is important to evaluate the severity degree of pneumonia
It is important to evaluate the severity degree of pneumonia
  • The critical management decision is whether the patient will require hospital admission. It is based on patient characteristics, comorbid illness, physical examinations, and basic laboratory findings.
the diagnostic standard of sever pneumonia
The diagnostic standard of sever pneumonia
  • Altered mental status
  • Pa02<60mmHg. PaO2/FiO2<300, needing MV
  • Respiratory rate>30/min
  • Blood pressure<90/60mmHg
  • Chest X-ray shows that bilateral infiltration, multilobar infiltration and the infiltrations enlarge more than 50% within 48h.
  • Renal function: U<20ml/h, and <80ml/4h
slide26
CAP (社区获得性肺炎)
  • CAP refers to pneumonia acquired outside of hospitals or extended-care facilities .
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most commonly identified pathogen.
  • Other pathogens include Haemophilus influenzae, mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophilia pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and ects.
  • Drug resistance streptococcus pneumoniae(DRSP)
clinical manifestation
Clinical manifestation
  • The onset is accute
  • Respiratory symptoms
  • Extrapulmonary symptoms
signs
signs
  • Consolidation signs
  • Moist rales
  • Respiratory rate or heart rate
laboratory examination
Laboratory examination
  • WBC
  • X-ray features
diagnosis30
Diagnosis
  • Clinical diagnosis
  • Pathogen diagnosis
  • Evaluate the severity degree of pneumonia
therapy31
Therapy
  • Antiinfectious therapy(Combined empiric therapy to target therapy)
  • Supportive therapy
empiric therapy 1
Outpatient<60 years old and no comorbid diseases

Common pathogens: S pneumoniaes, M pneumoniae, C pneumoniae, H influenzae and viruses

A new generation macrolide

A beta-lactam: the first generation cephlosporin

A fluoroquinolone

Empiric therapy (1)
empiric therapy 2
Outpatient>65 years old or having comorbid diseases or antibiotic therapy within last 3 months

Common pathogens: S pneumoniae(drug-resistant), M pneumoniae, C pneumoniae, H pneumoniae, H influenzae, Viruses, Gram-negative bacilli and S aureus

A fluoroquinolone

A beta-lactam / beta-lactamase inhibitor

The second generation cephalosporin

or combination of a macrolide

Empiric therapy (2)
empiric therapy 3
Inpatient : Not severely ill.

Common pathogen:S pneumoniae, H influenzae, polymicrobial, Anaerobes, S aureus, C pneumoniae, Gram-negative bacilli.

The second or third generation cephalosporin plus A macrolide

A beta-lactam/betalactamase inhibitor.

A newer fluoroquinolone

Empiric therapy (3)
empiric therapy 4
Inpatient severely ill

Common pathogens:S pneumoniae, Gram-negative bacilli, M pneumoniae, S aureus and viruses

The second or third generation cephalosporin plus A macrolide

A beta-lactam/betalactamase inhibitor.

A newer fluoroquinolone

Vancomycin

Empiric therapy (4)
empiric therapy 5
Patients in ICU without Pneudomonas aeruginosa infection

The second or third generation cephalosporin plus A macrolide

A beta-lactam/betalactamase inhibitor.

A newer fluoroquinolone

Vancomycin

Empiric therapy (5)
empiric therapy 6
Patients in ICU with Pneudomonas aeruginosa infection

A antipneudomonas aeruginosa beta-lactam/betalactamase inhibitor plus fluoroquinolone

Empiric therapy (6)
slide39
HAP(医院获得性肺炎)
  • HAP refers to pneumonia acquired in the hospital setting.
  • Enteric Gram-negative organisms, S. aureus, Pneudomonas aeruginosa, ects.
the pathogen of hap
The pathogen of HAP
  • Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) account for 55% to 85% of HAP infections
  • gram-positive cocci account for 20% to 30% and some other pathogens.
epidemiology41
EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • General risk factors for developing HAP include age more than 70 years, serious comorbidities, malnutrition, impaired consciousness, prolonged hospitalization, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.
epidemiology42
EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • HAP is the most common infection occurring in patients requiring care in an intensive care unit (ICU), with incidence rates ranging from 6% up to

52%, much higher than the 0.5% to 2% incidence reported for hospitalized patients as a whole.

This increased incidence is due to the fact that patients located in an ICU often require mechanical ventilation, and mechanically ventilated patients are 6 to 21 times more likely to develop HAP than are nonventilated patients. Mechanical ventilation is associated

pathogenesis
PATHOGENESIS
  • Aspiration :Microaspiration of contaminated oropharyngeal secretions seems to be the most important of these factors, as it is the most common cause of HAP.
  • Inhalation
  • Contamination
clinical manifestations
Clinical manifestations
  • The onset is acute or insidious
  • Respiratory symptoms
  • Physical signs
diagnosis46
diagnosis
  • Clinical diagnosis
  • Pathogen diagnosis
  • Evaluate the severity degree of pneumonia
treatment 1
Treatment (1)
  • Antibiotic therapy: antimicrobial therapy begin promptly because delays in administration of antibiotics have been associated with worse outcomes.
  • The initial selection of an antimicrobial agent is almost always made on an empiric basis and is based on factors such as severity of infection, patient-specific risk factors, and total number of days in hospital before onset.
treatment 2
Treatment (2)
  • All empiric treatment regimens should include coverage for a group of core organisms that includes aerobic gram negative bacilli (Enterobacter spp, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Proteus spp, Serratia marcescens, and Hemophilus influenzae) and gram-positive organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus.
treatment 3
Treatment (3)
  • In patients with mild or moderate infections and no specific risk factors for resistant or unusual pathogens, monotherapy with a second-generation cephalosporin such as cefuroxime; a nonpseudomonal third-generation cephalosporin such as ceftriaxone; or a beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor such as ampicillin/sulbactam, ticarcillin/clavulanate, or piperacillin/tazobactam may be appropriate.
  • For patients in this low-risk category who have an allergy to penicillin, it is appropriate to initially use a fluoroquinolone
treatment 4
Treatment (4)
  • Patients with severe infections with specific risk factors should have broadened empiric coverage.
  • Combination therapy should be employed in these cases because of the high rate of acquired resistance among these organisms.
  • Appropriate combinations for this group of patients include an aminoglycoside or ciprofloxacin in addition to a beta-lactam with antipseudomonal coverage.
  • Additionally, vancomycin should be considered if the patient has risk factors that suggest methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus could be a pathogen.
prevention
Prevention
  • Release aspiration
  • Washing hands
  • vaccination
slide52
ICHP (免疫低下宿主肺炎)
  • Pneumonia in an immunocompromised host describes a lung infection that occurs in

a person whose ability to fight infection is greatly impaired.

(Non-HIV-ICH)

causes incidence and risk factors
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
  • Immunosuppression can be caused by HIV infection, leukemia, organ transplantation, bone marrow transplant, and medications to treat cancer.
  • Microorganisms include all kinds of bacteria and virus(CMV), candida(念珠菌) and aspergilosis(曲菌).

pneumocystis carinii(PCP,卡氏肺孢子虫)

symptoms
Symptoms
  • The onset is incidous , but clinical Symptoms are severe.
  • Fever
  • Nonproductive (dry) cough or cough with mucus-like, greenish, or pus-like sputum
  • PCP
  • Fungal infection
diagnosis55
Diagnosis
  • Earlier finding and diagnosis
  • Pathogen diagnosis

Chest x-ray

Sputum gram stain, other special stains, and culture

Arterial blood gases

Bronchoscopy

Chest CT scan,

  • Tissue diagnosis
treatment
Treatment
  • Antimicroorganism therapy
  • The goal of treatment is to get rid of the infection with antibiotics or antifungal agents. The specific drug used will depend on what kind of organism

is causing the problem. One drug may kill one type of organism, but not another.

  • Respiratory treatments (to remove fluid and mucus) and oxygen therapy are often needed.
abstraction
Abstraction

• Pneumococcal pneumonia is produced by

streptococcal pneumoniae

• It is the most commonly occurring bacterial

pneumonia

etiology59
Etiology

•Streptococcus pneumonia are encapsulated,

gram-positive cocci that occur in chains or

pairs

• The capsule which is a complex polysaccharide

has specific antigenicity

• Type 3 is the most virulent, usually causing

severe pneumonia in adults, but type 6,14,19

and 23 are virulents is children

slide60

Bacteria are introduced into the lungs by the four routes

  • SourceRoute Response Outcome
  • colonization aspiration
  • Air inhalation
  • Non-pulmonary blood lung pneu.
  • infection stream defenses
  • Contiguous direct
  • infection extention
pathogenesis61
pathogenesis
  • Pneumococci usually reach the lungs by inhalation or aspiration. They lodge in the bronchioles, proliferation and initiate an inflammatory process.
pathology
Pathology

Congestion

red hepatization

grey hepatization

resolution)

pathology63
Pathology

Red hepatilization

slide64
◆ All of the four main stages of the inflammatory

reaction described above may be present at the

same time

◆ In most cases, recovery is complete with

restoration of normal pulmonary anatomy

clinical manifestations 1
Clinical manifestations (1)

•Many patients have had an upper respiratory

infection for several days before the onset of

pneumonia

• Onset usually is sudden, half cases with a

shaking chill

• The temperature rises during the first few

hours to 39-40℃

clinical manifestations 2
Clinical manifestations (2)

Typically, patients have the symptoms of high fever , shaking chill, sharp chest pain, cough, dyspnea and blood-flecked sputum.

But in some cases, especially those at age extremes symptoms may be more insidious.

clinical manifestations 3
Clinical manifestations (3)

• The pulse accelerates

• Sharp pain in the involved hemi thorax

• The cough is initially dry with pinkish or

blood-flecked sputum

• Gastrointestinal symptoms such as,

anorexia, nausea, vomiting abdominal

pain, diarrhea may be mistaken as acute

abdominal inflammation

signs 1
Signs 1

•The acutely ill patient is tachypneic, and

may be observed to use accessory muscles

for respiration, and even to exhibit nasal

flaring

• Fever and tachycardia are present, frank

shock is unusual, except in the later stages

of infection or DIC

signs 2
Signs 2

• Auscultation of the chest reveals

bronchovesicular or tubular breath

sounds and wet rales over the

involved lung

• A consolidation occurs, vocal and

tactile fremitus are increased

laboratory examinations 1
Laboratory examinations (1)

• The peripheral white blood cell (WBC) count

• Before using antibiotic, the culture of blood and

of expectorated purulent sputum between 24-48

hours can be used to identify pneumococci

• Colony counts of bacteria from bronchoalveolar

lavage washings obtained during endoscopy are

seldom available early in the course of illness

• Use of the PCR may amplify pneumococcal

DNA and improve potential for detection

x ray examination
X-ray examination

•Chest radiographs is more sensitive than

physical examination

• PA and lateral chest radiographs are

invaluable to detect pneumonia

x ray examination74
X-ray examination

• Usually lobar or segmental consolidation

suggests a bacterial cause for pneumonia

• If blunting of the costophrenic angle is noted, pleural effusion may be exist.

slide75

The features of CT

Air-bronchogram sign

complications
Complications

In 5% to 10% of patients, infection may extend into the pleural space and result in an empyema (脓胸)

In 15% to 20% of patients, bacteria may enter

the blood stream (bacteremia) via the lymphatics

and thoracic dust.

Invasion of the blood stream by pneumococci

may lead to serious metastatic disease at a

number of extra pulmonary sites (meningitis,

arthritis, pericarditis, endocarditis, peritonitis,

ostitis media etc).

complications77
Complications

sepsis(脓毒性休克)

lung abscess(肺脓疡) or empyema

pleural effusion(胸腔积液)

pleuritis

ARDS(急性呼吸窘迫综合征)

ARF(急性呼吸衰竭)

pneumothorax(气胸)

Extrapulmonary infections

diagnosis78
Diagnosis

According to history, the clinical signs , physical examinations, laboratory examinations and radiographic features

it is not difficult to make the diagnosis

differential diagnosis
Differential diagnosis

• pulmonary tuberculosis

• Other microbial pneumonias:

klebsiella pneumonia,

staphylococal pneumonia,

pneumonias due to G (-) bacilli,

viral and mycoplasmal

• Acute lung abscess

• Bronchogenic carcinoma

• Pulmomary infarction

treatments
Treatments
  • Antibiotics
  • Support therapy
  • Therapy of complications
antibiotic therapy 1
Antibiotic therapy (1)

• All patients with suspected pneumococcal

pneumonia should be treated as promptly as

possible with penicillin G

• The dose and route of delivery may have to

be on the basis of patients status adverse rea-

ction or complication that occur

antibiotic therapy 2
Antibiotic therapy (2)

• For patients who are believed to be allergic to penicillin, one may select the first or second generation cephalosporin or advanced macrolide+ β-lactam or respiratory fluoroquinolone alone.

For patients with PRSP, one may select the second and third generation cephalosporin or advanced macrolide+ β-lactam or respiratory fluoroquinolone alone.

In some cases, vancomycin may be used.

antibiotic therapy
Antibiotic therapy

• Treatment with any effective agent should be given for at least 5 to 7 day or after the patients have been afebrile for 2-3 days

slide84
Supportive measure
  • Supportive measure are generally used in
  • the initial management of acute pneumo-
  • coccal pneumonia, such measures include
  • • Bed rest

• Monitoring vital signs and urine output

• Administering an occasional analgesic to

relieve pleuritic pain

• Replacing fluids, if the patient is dehydrated

• Correcting electrolytes

• Oxygen therapy

slide85
Treatment of complications

•Empyema develops in appoximately 5% of patients

with pneumococcal pneumonia, although pleural

effusion commonly develop in 10%- 20% patients

• Chest X-ray with lateral decubitus films are often

useful in the early recognition of pleural effusion,

pleural fluid that is removed should be subjected to

routing examination

• If pneumococcal bacteremia occurs, extra pulmonary

complications such as arthritis, endocarditis must be

excluded, because the therapy requires higher dosages

• Treatment of infections shock

slide86

Prognosis

Prognosis is much better

Any of the following factors makes the prognosis

less favorable and convalescence more prolonged

elderly:

• involvement of 2 or more lobes

• underlying chronic diseases (heart lung

kidney) normal temperature and WBC

count <5000

• immunodeficiency with severe complication

prevention87
Prevention

The most important preventive tool available

is using a poly valent pneumococcal vaccine

in those with chronic lung diseases, chronic

liver diseases, splenectomy, diabetes mellitus

and aged

staphylococcus pneumonia
Staphylococcus pneumonia

•Staphylococcal pneumonia is usually caused by

staphylococcus aureus

• It is often a complication of influenza, but may be

primary, particularly in infants and the aged

slide89
It occurs in immunocompromissed patients such as

diabetes mellitus

hematologic disease ( leukemia, lymphoma, leukopenia )

AIDS, liver disease, malnutrition, alcoholism

• Staphylococcal bacteremia complicating infections at

other sites (furuncles, carbuncles) may cause

hematogenous pulmonary involvement (due to blood

spread)

slide90
• Some or all of the symptoms of pneumococcal

pneumonia (high fever, shaking chill, pleural pain,

productive cough) may be present, sputum may be

copious and salmon-colored

• Prostration is often marked

• According the symptoms, signs of pneumonia,

leukocytosis and a positive sputum or blood

culture, the diagnosis can be made

slide91
• Gram stain of the sputum provides earliest

diagnostic clue

• Chest X-ray early in the disease shows

many small round areas of densities that

enlarge and coalesce to from abscess, and

leave evidence of multiple cavities

slide92
•Until the sensitivity results are know, a

penicillinase–resistant penicillin or a

cephalosporin should be given

• Therapy is continued for 2 weeks after

the patient has become afebrile and the

lungs have shown signs of clearing

• Vancomycin is the drug of choice for

patients allergic to penicillin and cepha-

losporin and for those not responding to

other antistaphylococcal drugs, mainly used in MRSA.

pneumonia caused by klebsiella
Pneumonia caused by klebsiella

Klebsiella pneumonia ( also named Friedlander

pneumonia) is an acute lung infection, caused by

Klebsiella pneumoniae 1, it occurs much more in

aged, malnutrition, chronic alcoholism, and in

whom with bronchial pulmonary disease

slide94
•This pneumonia is most likely to be found in

man with middle age, onset usually is sudden,

with high fever, cough, pleuritic pain, abundant

sputum, cyanosis, tachycardia my be present,

half cases with a shaking chill

• Shock appears in early stage

slide95
• Clinical manifestations are similar to sever

pneumococcal pneumonia

• The sputum is viscid and “ropy”, and may be

“brick red” in color

• Chest X-ray shows a downward curve of the

horizontal interlobar fissure, if the right

upper lobe is involved

• Areas of increased radiance whithin dense

consolidation suggest cavitation

• It constitutes 2% of bacterial pneumonia,

but mortality may be as high as 30%

slide96
• When an elderly patient suffered from acute

pneumonia with sever toxic symptom, viscid

and “brick red”, sputum must consider this

disease

• The diagnosis is determined by bacterial

examination of sputum

• Early using antimicrobial therapy is im-

portant for patients with survivable ill-

illnesses, aminoglycoside (Kanamycin, Amikacin,

Gentamycin ) and the third generation cephalosporin are often used.

mycoplasmal pneumonia
Mycoplasmal pneumonia

• Mycoplasmal pneumonia is caused by Mycoplasmal

pneumoniae

• Mycoplasmal pneumoniae is one of the smallest

organisms 125-150 μm capable of replication in

cell-free media

• Infection is spread form person to person by

respiratory secretions expelled during bouts of

coughing, causing epidemic or sporadic occurance

slide98
• It commonly occurs in children, adolescent, mainly

in fall and winter

• It constitutes more than 1/3 of non bacterial

pneumonias, or 10% of pneumonias from all cause

• Cellular infiltrate around bronchioles, and in

alveolar interstitium, consists mostly of mono-

nuclear elements

clinical findings
Clinical findings

•The illness begins insidiously with constitutional

symptomatology:

malaise, sore throat, cough, fever, myalgia

• Half of cases have no symptom

chest x ray
Chest X-ray

Chest X-ray findings are manifold

• Most patients have unilateral lower lobe

segmental abnormalities

• The earliest signs are an interstitial accentuation

of marking with subsequent patch air space

consolidation and thickened bronchial shadows

slide101
• The pneumonia may persist for 3-4 weeks

a slight leukocytosis is seen, with a normal

differential count

• The diagnosis is generally proved by a single

antibody titer of 1:32 or greater, a titer of

cold agglutinins of 1:32 or greater a single

Ig M determination

• The most promising in terms of speed,

sensitivity and specificity is PCR although

cost and lack of general availability limit its

routine use

therapy102
Therapy

A definite clinical response

is seen to erythromycin and some other newer macrolide

legionnaies pneumonia
Legionnaies Pneumonia

Legionella can be an opportunistic pathogen.

Patients with immunosuppression are at increased risk for infection. But sometimes outbreaks do occur in previously healthy individuals.

slide105
Legionnaires’ disease is acquried by inhaling aerosolized water containing Legionella organisms or possibly by pulmonary aspiration of contaminated water.

The contaminated water are derived from humidifiers, shower heads, respiratory therapy equipment, industrail cooling water.

Because of the frequently use of air conditioner, Legionnaies pneumonia is also seen in CAP

clinical manifestations106
Clinical manifestations
  • The onset of L.pneumonia is sometimes severe.
  • High fever, rigors, and significant hypoxemia are usually seen in patients with L.pneumonia.
  • Failure to rapidly appropriate therapy in these cases is likely to result in a poor outcome.
slide107
Common signs include cough, dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain, gastrointestinal symptoms, especially diarrhea or localized abdominal pain, nausea, vomitting are a prominent finding in 20% to 40% of patients with L.pneumonia.
physical examination
Physical examination
  • Physical finding are often similar to other pneumonias.
  • Rales are usually present over involved areas
  • Pulse rate is not coincide to the body temperate.
chest x ray109
Chest X-ray
  • No diagnostic features on the chest X-ray distinguish it from other pneumonia
  • Infiltrates can be unilateral, bilateral, patchy, or dense, and can spread very quickly to involve the entire lung, pleural effusion, usually small in volume occurs
  • Routine laboratory tests also are nonspecific.
laboratory examination110
Laboratory examination
  • Serologic testing is the most often used for establishing a diagnosis.
  • A fourfold or greater rise in antibody is considered definitively exist for Legionella.
diagnosis111
Diagnosis
  • According to history, clinical signs, X-ray features and serologic testing, we can diagnose it.
therapy112
Therapy
  • Erythromycin is considered the drug of choice.It should be given until clinical improvement is seen.It usually lasts 2-3 weeks.
candidiasis
Candidiasis

Candidiasis is an opportunistic disease, it is caused by candida.

clinical signs
Clinical signs
  • Respiratory signs: fever,cough, sputum production, dyspnea.
  • X-ray shows no specific.It is similar to acute pneumonia.
diagnosis115
diagnosis
  • Mainly according to sputum culture or biopsy of lung.
therapy116
Therapy
  • Nystatin or various azole drugs
aspergillosis
Aspergillosis
  • Aspergillosis refers to infection with any of species of the genus Aspergillus
clinical signs118
Clinical signs
  • The disease generally occurs in immunosuppressed and anticancer therapy patients.
  • There are four types of pulmonary aspergillosis.
clinical signs of pulmonary aspergillosis
Clinical signs of Pulmonary aspergillosis
  • Presents as chronic productive cough, hemoptysis, dyspnea, weight loss, fatigue, chest pain, or fever
  • Sometimes patients with pulmonary aspergillosis accompany with prior chronic lung disease.
  • Typical picture of an aspergilloma is a fungus ball in a cavity in an upper lobe
  • The sputum culture is positive in most patients.
diagnosis120
Diagnosis
  • The repeated isolation of Aspergillus from sputum or the demonstration of hyphae in sputum or BALF suggests endobronchial infection.
treatment121
Treatment
  • With intravenous amphotericin B (1.0 to 1.5 mg/kg daily)
  • Patients with severe hemoptysis due to fungus ball of lung may benefit from lobectomy
therapy to infectious shock
Therapy to Infectious Shock
  • Treatment in intensive care units

cardiac rhythm, blood pressure, cardiac performance, oxygen delivery, and metabolic derangements can be monitored

  • Adequate oxygenation and ventilatory support (sometimes mechanical ventilation)
  • Effective antibiotic therapy
  • Maintain blood pressure, including maintain circulation blood volume, use of dopamine
summary
Summary
  • 1.肺炎的定义
  • 2.肺炎的分类
  • 3.CAP和HAP的定义和常见的病原体
  • 4.肺炎球菌肺炎的典型的临床表现和影象特点及其治疗原则
  • 5.各种病原体肺炎的治疗原则
  • 6.感染性休克的治疗原则
questions
Questions
  • 1.What is the differences between CAP and HAP?
  • 2.What is the standard of sever pneumonia?
  • 3.what are the principals of antibiotic therapy of various of pneumonias?
case report
Case report
  • 患者,男性,32岁
  • 主诉:发热伴咳嗽6天
  • 现病史:患者于6天前劳累后出现发热,体温最高达39℃,稍有畏寒,自服退热药后热退,之后体温又上升,达38℃,伴有咳嗽,痰为白色黏液样,偶呈黄脓性,遂于我院就诊,胸部X线显示:左下肺片状高密度影,外周血白细胞6.0*109 /L,N66.2%,在门诊予与亚星和左克抗感染3天,体温不退,行胸部CT检查示:左下肺片状密度增高影。故收入院进一步诊治。
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入院体检
  • 神清,一般可,T:38℃,P90次/分,R18次/分,BP110/70mmHg,口唇无紫绀,全身浅表淋巴结未及肿大,颈软,两肺呼吸音粗,未及干湿罗音,腹软,无压痛,双下肢无浮肿,NS(-)
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辅助检查
  • 血支原体抗体IgM1:160
  • 胸片
  • 胸部CT
case2
case2
  • 患者,男性,50岁
  • 主诉:咳嗽伴咳黄痰二十余天
  • 现病史:患者于入院前二十余天开始无明显诱因下出现咳嗽,咳黄脓痰,量中,无咯血,胸痛和呼吸困难等其他呼吸系统症状。四天后出现发热一次,体温未测,自服安乃近后热平,但一直有夜间出汗较多伴乏力,遂于当地医院就诊,胸片示两肺多发阴影,拟肺炎后于次日来我院行CT(见CT结果),为进一步诊治入院。
  • 追问病史患者于入院约半年前确诊天疱仓,遂开始服用强地松片30mg/d,后因病情反复增加用量,并于入院前2月加用硫唑嘌呤2片/d
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入院体检、辅助检查
  • 体检无特殊阳性体征
  • 胸部CT检查
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选择题
  • 1.男性,58 岁,有慢性咳嗽、咯痰史 15 年,1 周来高热、咯红砖色胶冻样痰,伴气急紫绀,谵妄,本 例可能性最大的诊断是:B
  • A、肺炎球菌肺炎
  • B、克雷白杆菌肺炎
  • C、浸润型肺结核
  • D、病毒性肺炎
  • E、支原体肺炎
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2.男性,35 岁,发热、寒颤 3 天,体温 39 度,胸片示右上肺大片阴影,痰涂片见较多革兰氏阳性成对 或短链状球菌,这时治疗首选 ?C
  • A、头孢唑啉
  • B、丁胺卡那霉素
  • C、青霉素
  • D、氟哌酸
  • E、红霉素
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3.肺炎球菌肺炎在病变消散后肺组织结构:E
  • A、纤维组织增生
  • B、有小空洞残留
  • C、肺泡壁水肿
  • D、局部支气管扩张
  • E、肺泡壁无损坏
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4.男,20 岁,低热咽痛,咳嗽半月入院,咳嗽甚剧,为刺激性干咳,体检:T37.8 度,咽充血,心肺无 阳性体征,化验:WBC:8*10^9/L,中性 70%,X 线胸片示右下肺间质性炎变,间有小片状阴影,以下哪 项检查对明确诊断意义较大?E
  • A、痰细菌培养
  • B、咽拭子细菌培养
  • C、痰查抗酸杆菌
  • D、结核菌素试验
  • E、冷凝集试验
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5.患者,25 岁,女性,咽痛,咳嗽,乏力,四肢肌肉疼痛,中等发热,双肺呼吸音稍粗,未闻罗音,白 细胞 9.6*10^9/L,中性 86%,胸片示:左下肺部斑片状浸润阴影,血清冷凝集试验:1:64 阳性,最好 应选择的治疗药物是:E
  • A、抗结核药
  • B、青霉素
  • C、头孢菌素
  • D、氨基甙类抗生素
  • E、红霉素
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6.军团菌肺炎首选的抗生素是:A
  • A.红霉素
  • B.青霉素
  • C.头孢菌素
  • D.丁胺卡那霉素
  • E.氯霉素
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7.肺炎球菌致病力的主要因素是 E
  • A.肺炎球菌内毒素
  • B.肺炎球菌外毒素
  • C.肺炎球菌菌体蛋白质
  • D. 肺炎球菌迅速繁殖
  • E.肺炎球菌含高分子多糖体荚膜对组织的侵袭力
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8.治疗肺炎球菌肺炎首选抗生素是B
  • A 红霉素
  • B.青霉素
  • C.丁胺卡那霉素
  • D.氯霉素
  • E.羧苄青霉素
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9.男性,25岁,因受凉后突起畏寒、发热(39.2度)。左9.男性,25岁,因受凉后突起畏寒、发热(39.2度)。左
  • 侧胸痛伴咳嗽,咯少量铁锈色痰,胸部X线摄片见左下肺野大片淡薄阴影。其最可能的诊断是:C
  • A.金黄色葡萄球菌肺炎
  • B.结核性胸膜炎
  • C.肺炎球菌肺炎
  • D原发性支气管肺癌合并阻塞性肺炎
  • E.急性原发性肺脓疡
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9.肺炎球菌肺炎患者在抗生素治疗下体温接近正常后反又升高,白细胞增高,首先考虑:E9.肺炎球菌肺炎患者在抗生素治疗下体温接近正常后反又升高,白细胞增高,首先考虑:E
  • A.细菌产生耐药
  • B.抗生素用量不足
  • C.药物热
  • D.加用退热药
  • E.出现并发症
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10.肺炎球菌肺炎的炎症发展最高峰是:A
  • A.灰色肝样变期
  • B.消散期
  • C.红色肝样变期
  • D.病变组织的机化
  • E.充血期